Week 3 - Neuro Anatomy Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Week 3 - Neuro Anatomy Deck (106):
1

glossopharyngeal nerve CN IX

exits skull via jugular foramen, supplies motor to stylopharyngeus and sensory to pharyngeal wall - afferent part of gag reflex

2

vagus nerve CN X

exists skull via jugular foramen, motor to pharyngeal muscles (except stylopheryngeus) and motor to larynx - also preganglionic GVE and sensory GVA to thoracic and abdominal viscera

3

hypoglossal nerve CN XII

exits skull via hypoglossal canal, supplies motor to muscles of the tongue (glossal muscles)

4

sympathetic trunk

pre-ganglionic to superior cervical ganglion

5

superior cervical ganglion

post-ganglionic fibers alongside the internal carotid artery into skull

6

pharyngeal plexus

branches of CN IX and X on posterior side of pharynx

7

accessory nerve CN XI

exists skull via jugular foramen, supplies motor to sternocleidomastoid and trapezius

8

internal jugular veins

exits skull via jugular foramen

9

internal carotid artery

enters skull via foramen spinosum

10

gag reflex

afferent limb - CN IX (glossopharyngeal), efferent limb - CN X (vagus), can suck things like forks down throat

11

3 pharyngeal constrictors

superior / middle / inferior pharyngeal constrictor, motor supply from vagus nerve CN X, one inside the other going down, insert on midline median raphe, cricopharyngeal is most inferior portion of constrictors

12

superior pharyngeal constrictor

origin mandible and medial pterygoid plate and pterygomandibular raphe, continuous with buccinator anteriorly, vagus nerve

13

middle pharyngeal constrictor

origin on hyoid bone and stylohyoid ligament, vagus nerve

14

inferior pharyngeal constrictor

origin thyroid and cricoid cartilage, vagus nerve, cricopharyngeus is most inferior part

15

stylopharyngeus muscle

origin styloid process, between superior and middle pharyngeus constrictors, inserts into pharyngeal wall, motor from glossopharyngeal nerve CN IX

16

pharynx

open space deep to nasal and oral cavities and larynx

17

nasopharynx

deep to nasal cavity, base of brain to soft palate

18

oropharynx

deep to oral cavity, soft palate to opening of larynx

19

laryngopharynx

deep to larynx, opening of larynx to start of esophagus

20

piriform fossa

in laryngopharynx, lateral to cricoid cartilage, medial to thyroid cartilage, internal branch of superior laryngeal nerve perforates thyrohyoid membrane and innervates laryngeal mucosa

21

thyroid cartilage

superior horns are lateral to piriform fossa

22

internal branch of superior laryngeal nerve

branch of vagus, pierces thyrohyoid membrane, enters piriform fossa, supplies laryngeal mucosa above vocal cords

23

thyrohyoid membrane

membrane from thyroid cartilage to hyoid bone, pierced by internal branch of laryngeal nerve as it enters the piriform fossa

24

pharyngeal recess

most superior part of nasopharynx, location of pharyngeal tonsils (in young people, get smaller with age)

25

pharyngeal tonsil

in pharyngeal recess, continues to auditory opening, in young people, get smaller with age, AKA adenoid tonsils

26

auditory tube

opens into nasopharynx, connects to middle ear

27

tubal elevation (Torus tubarius)

cartilage superior to auditory tube and the salpingopharyngeus muscle

28

salpingopharyngeal fold

vertical ridge continuous with tubal elevation, in nasopharynx, mucosal fold over salpingopharyngeus msucle

29

salpingopharyngeal muscle

beneath salpingopharyngeal fold, supplied by vagus nerve

30

levator veli palatini

origin cartilage of auditory tube to insert on soft palate, elevates palate during swallowing, supplied by vagus nerve

31

tensor veli palatini

origin from pterygoid fossa and cartilage of auditory tube, tendon wraps around medial pterygoid plate (hamate process) and inserts on soft palate, tenses soft palate and opens auditory tube, supplied by mandibular division of trigeminal nerve V3

32

palatoglossal fold

form palatoglossal arch, soft palate to tongue

33

palatoglossal muscle

create palatoglossal fold, vagal branches of pharyngeal plexus

34

palatopharyngeal fold

makes palatopharyngeal arch, soft palate to lateral pharynx

35

palatopharyngeal muscle

creates palatopharyngeal fold, vagal branch of pharyngeal plexus

36

palatine tonsils

between palatoglossal fold and palatopharyngeal fold

37

recurrent laryngeal nerve

branch of vagus that supplies below larynx, loops under right subclavian and left aortic arch

38

nasal bone

small, at bridge of nose

39

ethmoid bone

contains cribriform plate and ethmoid sinus, between frontal and sphenoid bones, forms upper portion of boney nasal septum

40

sphenoid bone

posterior to ethmoid bone, contains sphenoid sinus

41

frontal bone

between nasal and ethmoid bones, contains frontal sinus

42

vomer bone

forms lower portions of bony nasal septum, sits on top of maxilla and palatine bones

43

maxilla bone

forms ant hard palate in mouth

44

palatine bone

forms post hard palate in mouth

45

chona (sing), choanae (pl)

posterior nasal apertures, space between vomer and sphenoid that opens into nasopharynx

46

nasal concha (sing), conchae (pl)

superior and middle are ethmoid bone, inferior is its own bone

47

meatuses (pl), meatus (sing)

superior, middle, and inferior, passage way beneath overhaning conchae

48

sphenoethmoidal recess

hole between sphenoid sinus and nasal cavity, near superior nasal conchae on posterior wall of nasal cavity

49

sphenoid sinus

inside sphenoid bone

50

ethmoid bulla

bulge below middle nasal conchae

51

sphenopalatine foramen

hole at superior junction of sphenoid and palatine bones, sphelopalatine artery passes through - branch of maxillary artery

52

maxillary sinus

lateral to nasal cavity in the maxilla, outlet is upward and must be emptied by ciliary action, outlet is larger and in posterior part of curved hiatus semilunaris under middle nasal concha

53

hiatus semilunaris

curved indentation along anterior inferior edge of ethmoid bulla, leads up to frontonasal duct

54

frontonasal duct

connect frontal sinus and nasal cavity, empties into hiatus semilunaris

55

frontal sinus

in frontal bone

56

ethmoid sinus

in ethmoid bone, immediately superior to the roof of the nasal cavity, empty into the nasal cavity roof via small holes

57

nasolacrimal duct

from nasolacrimal fossa to inferior meatus below inferior concha, small anterior opening - canaliculi -> nasolacrimal sac -> nasolacrimal duct -> nasal cavity

58

pterygomaxillary fissure

wedge shaped opening between maxilla and lateral ptyergoid plate of sphenoid bone, bridged by zygomatic bone

59

pterygopalatine fossa

medial end of pterygomaxillary fissure

60

sphelopalatine foramen

medial to end of pterygopalatine fossa, transmits the sphenopalatine artery (a branch of the maxillary artery) into the nasal cavity

61

pterygopalatine ganglion

medial part of pterygomaxillary fissure, branches upward to V2 and descending branches (greater and lesser palatine nerves), fibers from CN VII via nerve of the pterygoid canal (pre-gang parasympathetics, post-gang sympathetics), destributed in sensory branches of V2 - parasympathetic fibers go to glands of the nasal mucosa and the lacrimal gland

62

greater and lesser palatine nerves

descending branches off pterygopalatine ganglion, greater supplies the hard palate, lesser supplies the soft palate - includes parasympathetic innervation to palatine glands

63

greater and lesser palatine vessels

branches of the descending palatine artery, greater supplies hard palate, lesser supplies soft palate

64

greater and lesser palatine foramen

holes at posterior lateral hard palate,

65

greater palatine canal

connects pterygopalatine fossa with greater palatine foramen in mouth, contains the greater and lesser palatine nerves and the descending palatine artery

66

innervation to most of nasal and palate

sensory branches of CN V2

67

innervation of anterior nasal cavity

ethmoidal branches of the nasociliary nerve that is a branch of CN V1

68

nasopalatine nerve

sensory branch of the CN V2 runs along nasal septum, through incisive canal, innervates anterior roof of mouth

69

palatoglossal arch

from palate to tongue, formed by palatoglossal fold and underlying palatoglossus muscle - first seen when looking in mouth

70

palatoglossal fold

forms palatoglossal arch, underlying palatoglossus muscle

71

palatopharyngeal arch

from palate to pharynx, formed from palatopharyngeal fold, underlying palatopharyngeus muscle - second seen when looking in the mouth

72

palatopharyngeal fold

forms palatopharyngeal arch, underlying palatopharyngeus muscle

73

palatine tonsil

between palatoglossal arch and palatopharyngeal arch

74

sublingual gland

in the sublingual fold under the tongue, multiple ducts through mucosa into oral cavity

75

frenulum of the tongue

fold of mucosa that extends from floor of mouth to ventral tongue

76

submandibular duct

openings into oral cavity at the sublingual caruncle on either side of the frenulum - duct runs on dorsal surface of mylohyoid muscle and submandibular gland is mostly on ventral surface of mylohyoid muscle

77

lingual nerve

branch of V3, passes beneath submandibular duct, supplies sensation to ant 2/3 tongue and mucosa, carries preganglionic fibers from chorda typmani (CN VIII), superficial to hypoglossus

78

submandibular ganglion

attached to lingual nerve, pregang fibers from CN VII via chorda tympani to lingual nerve, postgang to submandibular gland and back to lingual nerve to sublingual glands - parasympathetic

79

hypoglossal nerve CN XII

passes across lateral surface of hypoglossus muscle and deep to mylohyoid muscle, supplies motor to tongue

80

hypoglossus muscle

origin on hyoid and insertion on tongue, hypoglossal nerve, interdigitates with intrinsic tongue muscles

81

anterior belly of the digastric

superficial to mylohyoid, from to mental spines to mastoid, from 1st pharyngeal arch, mylohyoid nerve - branch of inferior alveolar nerve - branch of V3

82

mylohyoid muscle

deep to anterior belly of the digastric, from mandible to midline, from 1st pharyngeal arch, mylohyoid nerve - branch of inferior alvolar nerve - branch of V3

83

genioglossus muscle

in floor of mouth, from mental spines to tongue, hypoglossal nerve, protrudes tongue, fans vertically as three muscles on each side of midline

84

geniohyoid muscle

from mental spines to hyoid bone, innervated by C1 that accompanies the hypoglossal nerve, superficial to genioglossus and deep to mylohyoid

85

lingual artery

deep to hypoglossus muscle, supplies the tongue

86

styloglossus muscle

origin styloid process, insertion in tongue, hypoglossal nerve

87

glossopharyngeal nerve CN IX

enters oropharynx passing inferior to superior pharyngeal constrictor, motor to stylopharyngeus muscle, general sensory and special sensory taste to post 1/3 tongue, sensory to tonsillar fossa

88

median glossoepiglottic fold

vertical fold superior to the median hyoid, made of epiglottis

89

lateral glossoepiglottic folds

lateral folds superior to the hyoid, made of epiglottis

90

epiglottic valleculae

bilateral indentation in hyoepiglottic ligament between hyoid and epiglottis - place where cancer hides

91

epiglottis

superior paddle-shaped extension of thyroid cartilage, covers trachea when swallowing

92

thyroid cartilage

larger cartilage between cricoid cartilage and hyoid bone

93

cricoid cartilage

thinner cartilage inferior to thyroid cartilage

94

arytenoid cartilage

superior edge of cricoid lamina, has muscular process laterally and vocal process anteriorly

95

aryepiglottic folds

fold between epiglottis and arytenoid cartilage

96

piriform fossa

fossa inside trachea between thryoid cartilage (laterally) and cricoid lamina (medially), internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (vagus)

97

vestibular folds

false vocal cords, superior to true vocal cords

98

vocal folds

true vocal cords, inferior to vestibular folds

99

ventricle

space between vestibular folds and vocal folds

100

vestibule

space from aryepiglottic fold to vestibular folds

101

infraglottic region

space from vocal folds to bottom of circoid cartilage

102

rima glottidis

space between vocal folds, narrowed during phonation

103

glottis

vocal folds and rima glottidis

104

vocal ligament

extends anteriorly from arytenoid cartilage to posterior thyroid lamina

105

posterior cricoarytenoid muscle

abducts the rima glottidis, origin - posterior cricoid lamina, insertion - muscular processes of arytenoid cartilage, contraction swings vocal processes of arytenoid cartilage laterally, nerve - recurrent laryngeal nerve (vagus)

106

recurrent laryngeal nerve

branch of vagus, supplies all muscles of the larynx, runs superiorly alonf trachea and dives deep behind pharyngeal constrictors