2.1 Major blood vessels of the Head and Neck Flashcards Preview

Semester 4- Head and Neck > 2.1 Major blood vessels of the Head and Neck > Flashcards

Flashcards in 2.1 Major blood vessels of the Head and Neck Deck (30):
1

Where do the right subclavian and right common carotid originate from?

Brachiocephalic trunk

2

What arteries arise from the subclavian artery?

Vertebral artery, Internal thoracic artery and Thyrocervical arteries

3

What does the thyrocervical trunk supply?

Ascending cervical and transverse cervical supply to the neck
Suprascapular artery- shoulder
Inferior thyroid artery- lower pole of thyroid

4

Describe the route of the vertebral arteries

From subclavian artery to up through transverse foramina in C1-C6, supplies the brain

5

At what level does the common carotid bifurcate?

The superior border of the thyroid cartilage

6

What is the carotid sinus?

Swelling at the region of the bifurcation of the common carotid. Location of baroreceptors to detect changes in arterial blood pressure

7

What is the carotid body?

Peripheral chemoreceptors which detect arterial O2 found in the bifurcation of the common carotid

8

Describe a carotid artery atheroma

Atheroma formation in the bifurcation of the common carotid. Causes narrowing of the artery and turbulent flow. Emboli can easily move into the brain and cause a stroke

9

What is the carotid sheath?

A layer of fascia surrounding the common carotid, IJV, vagus nerve and deep cervical lymph nodes

10

Name the branches of the external carotid artery

Superior thyroid
Ascending pharyngeal
Lingual
Facial
Occipital
Posterior auricular
Superficial temporal
Maxillary

11

Which arteries supply the scalp?

Occipital
Posterior auricular
Superficial temporal
Supratrochlear
Supraorbital

12

Which artery do the supratrochlear and supraorbital originate from?

Opthalmic artery

13

List the layers of the scalp

Skin
Connective tissue
Aponeurosis
Loose connective tissue
Periosteum
(Spells SCALP)

14

Where do the vessels of the scalp lie?

Subcutaneous connective tissue layer

15

Why can damage to the scalp cause profuse bleeding?

The arteries are closely attached to the connective tissue and there are many anastamoses

16

How can deep lacerations to the skull cause profuse bleeding?

If the epicranial aponeurosis is damaged the opposing pull of the occipitofrontalis muscle keeps the scalp pulled open

17

Name the major superficial veins in the scalp

Superficial temporal
Occipital
Posterior auricular

18

What do the supratrochlear and the supraorbital veins merge to become?

Angular vein

19

Where does the angular vein drain into?

Facial vein

20

Where do the veins of the scalp drain to?

Dural venous sinuses

21

Which veins drain the blood from the skull to the dural venous sinuses?

Diploic veins

22

Which veins drain the blood from the outer layer of the scalp to the dural venous sinuses?

Emissory veins

23

Where do the dural venous sinuses lie?

Between the periosteal and the meningeal layers of the dura

24

What is the cavernous sinus?

A plexus of extremely thin-walled veins on the upper surface of the sphenoid

25

What other structures lie in the cavernous sinus?

Internal carotid artery
CN III, IV, VI, V1 and V2

26

What artery supplies the skull with blood?

Middle meningeal artery

27

Where is the middle meningeal artery vulnerable?

The pterion

28

What happens if the middle meningeal artery ruptures?

Extradural haemorrhage- pulls periosteal layer off the skull

29

What is a craniotomy?

Surgery to gain access inside the cranial cavity

30

Where does the IJV lie?

Under the SCM