5.1 Anatomy of the Orbit, Orbital Region and Eyeball Flashcards Preview

Semester 4- Head and Neck > 5.1 Anatomy of the Orbit, Orbital Region and Eyeball > Flashcards

Flashcards in 5.1 Anatomy of the Orbit, Orbital Region and Eyeball Deck (39):
1

Which 6 bones make up the orbit?

Frontal
Sphenoid
Ethmoid
Lacrimal
Maxilla
Zygomatic

2

Name the 4 openings in the orbital cavity

Optic canal
Superior orbital fissure
Inferior orbital fissure
Nasolacrimal canal

3

What structures lie in the optic canal?

Optic nerve and optic artery

4

What structures lie in the superior orbital fissure?

Lacrimal nerve
Frontal nerve
Trochlear nerve
Oculomotor nerve
Nasociliary nerve
Abducens nerve

Superior ophthalmic vein

5

What structures lie in the inferior orbital fissure?

Maxillary nerve
Inferior ophthalmic vein
Sympathetic nerves

6

What is the purpose of the nasolacrimal canal?

Drains tears to nasal cavity

7

Which bone are the optic canal, superior and inferior orbital fissure located in?

Sphenoid bone

8

What is an orbital rim fracture?

Fracture of the bones forming the outer rim of the bony orbit ie. Maxilla, zygomatic and frontal bones

9

What is a blowout fracture?

Contents of the orbit partially herniate into the maxillary sinus. Patient cannot look up as inferior rectus muscle is trapped

10

What is exophthalmos?

Protrusion of the eye due to increased intraocular pressure

11

What makes up the outer fibrous layer of the eyeball?

Sclera and cornea

12

What makes up the middle vascular layer of the eyeball?

Choroid, iris and ciliary body

13

What makes up the inner layer of the eyeball?

Retina

14

What is retinal detachment?

The retina becomes free of the choroid so loses its blood supply and undergoes necrosis

15

Where is fluid produced in the eye?

Ciliary bodies

16

Where does fluid in the eye drain to?

Trabecular meshwork

17

What is open angle glaucoma?

Trabecular meshwork of eye becomes blocked so there is an accumulation of fluid in the aqueous humour. Increased pressure in the eye results in damage to the optic nerve and a loss of vision

18

What are cataracts?

Lens of the eye becomes harder and flattened

19

Name the 6 muscles around the eyeball and in what direction they move it

Superior rectus- look superiorly
Medial rectus- look medially
Inferior rectus- look inferiorly
Lateral rectus- look laterally
Superior oblique- rotate down
Inferior oblique- rotate up

20

What nerve supplies the lateral rectus muscle?

Abducens nerve

21

What nerve supplies the superior, medial and inferior rectus muscles?

Oculomotor nerve

22

What nerve supplies the inferior oblique muscle?

Oculomotor nerve

23

What nerve supplies the superior oblique muscle?

Trochlear nerve

24

How can the superior oblique muscle be tested?

Look medially and down.
Problem: patient won't be able to look down

25

How can the inferior oblique muscle be tested?

Patient will not be able to look medially and upwards

26

What are the origins of the ophthalmic artery?

Branch of the internal carotid artery

27

What happens if there is an occlusion of the ophthalmic artery?

Retina turns pale as the branches of the ophthalmic artery are end arteries

28

Where does the blood supply of the eye drain to?

Central retinal vein --> Superior ophthalmic vein --> Cavernous sinus

29

What does central retinal vein occlusion cause?

Blurry vision when dehydrated and pressure on the optic disk.

30

What is the function of the lacrimal gland?

Produces fluid which is swept over the eye

31

What is the function of the eyelid?

Protects against injury, dryness and excessive light

32

What area of the eye does the bulbar conjunctiva cover?

Sclera of the eye

33

What area of the eye does the palpebral conjunctiva cover?

Inner lining of eye socket

34

What is conjunctivitis?

Inflammation of the bulbar conjunctiva

35

What is the difference between tarsal gland inflammation and ciliary gland inflammation?

Tarsal gland inflammation is painless swelling of the eyelid. Ciliary gland inflammation is more serious and needs antibiotics to treat

36

What muscle opens the eye?

Levator palpebrae superioris

37

What nerve innervates the levator palpebrae superioris?

CN III (Oculomotor)

38

What muscle closes the eye?

Orbicularis oculi

39

What nerve innervates the orbicularis oculi?

CN VII (Facial)