Anti-Cancer Agents: Part 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anti-Cancer Agents: Part 1 Deck (100)
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1

What are the 2 categories of major anti-neoplastic drugs?

1. Cell cycle specific
2. Cell cycle nonspecific

2

Antimetabolites, taxanes, vinca alkaloids, epipodophyllotoxins, and antitumor antibiotics are examples of what?

Cell Cycle- Specific Anti-Neoplastic Drugs (Target cell & Give it in appropriate phase)

3

Aklyating agenst, anthracyclines, platinum analogs, camptothecins, and antitumor antibiotics are examples of what?

Cell Cycle NonSpecific (doesn't matter when given)

4

What are some drugs that are S-Phase Specific?

Cyotsine, arabinoside, hydroxyurea (Anti-metabolites)

5

What are some drugs that are S-Phase Specific, but self limiting?

6-mercaptopurine and methotrexatre

6

What is the G2 phase also known as?

Pre-mitotic interval

7

What drugs are M-phase specific?

Vinca Alkaloids: Vincristine, Vinblastine, Paclitacel

8

What are some drugs that are phase-nonspecific?

Alkylating drugs, nitrosoureas, antitumor antibiotics, procarbazine, cis-platinum, dacerbazine

9

What is the principle of selective toxicity?

To destroy neoplastic cells via selective killing versus normal cells

10

What can selective toxicity be described in terms of?

Chemotherapeutic Index (CTI)

11

What is CTI?

Toxicity to CA cells (lethal dose)/Toxicity to normal cells

12

What is toxicity measured by?

LD50

13

What is LD50?

Lethal dose for 50% cell population

14

Do conventional cytotoxic drugs have a lot of success with selective toxicity?

No

15

What is a common AE of conventional cytotoxic drugs?

Myelosuppression

16

What can Low WBC counts (leukopenia) contribute to?

INFECTION
Fever
Sore throat
Cough or shortness of breath
Nasal congestion
Burning during urination
Shaking chills
Redness, swelling and warmth at the site of an injury

17

What can low RBC counts (anemia) cause?

Fatigue
Irritability
Dizziness
Shortness of breath
Headaches
An increase in heart rate/breathing

18

What can you give to a patient to help speed up the recovery of reduced WBCs?

G-CSF or GM-CSF

19

What is Nadir in terms of WBC and when does it occur?

The lowest WBC after chemo- occurs 7-14 days post-therapy

-Chemo for brain tumors can have a delayed nadir

20

What is the life span of a WBC and what is the implication of this?

Few hours-days... these have to be made new more often so the chemo effects on WBC are more pronounced

21

What is the lifespan of a RBC?

120 days

22

What is a major AE of conventional cytotoxic drugs?

Thrombocytopenia and neutropenia

23

What can low platelet counts cause?

Bruise easily
Bleed longer than usual after minor cuts or scrapes
Have bleeding gums or nose bleeds
Develop large bruises (echymyoses) and multiple small bruises (petechiae)
Serious internal bleeding
Hair loss (alopecia)
Appetite loss
Weight loss
Impact on sexuality

24

What is the general threshold of platelet count where you would have to decrease dose of chemo drugs?

100,000
-Packaging often times will tell you what it is... usually drug is C/I if it is under 50,000

25

Which class of drugs resemble normal substrates such as purine/pyrimidine analogs?

Antimetabolites

26

What do antimetabolites do?

Inhibit DNA synthesis...they incorporate into DNA and fool it

27

What are 2 main issues with antimetabolites?

1. BM cell replication is profoundly inhibited
2. GI toxicity

28

True or False: Antimetabolites are highly cell specific?

TRUE- S phase

29

What is the result of an antimetabolite incorporating into DNA?

It will go through transcription and translation and result in a non-functional protein

30

What does 5-fluorouracil inhibit?

dTMP synthesis by inhibiting thymidylate synthase

(No dUMP --> dTMP for DNA to be made)