Opportunistic Infections- Dr. Moscatello Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Opportunistic Infections- Dr. Moscatello Deck (103)
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1

What constitutes a compromised host?

More than or equal to one defect in the bodies natural defense against microbial inbaders

2

What are compromised hosts at risk for?

Increased likelihood of suffering from severe and life threatening infections

3

What is a primary deficiency?

Something that's inherited or congenital

4

What a secondary deficiency?

Something due to underlying disease state or results from treatment from disease

5

What are 2 examples of innate primary immunodeficiencies?

Complement or phagocytic deficiencies

6

What are 4 examples of secondary innate immunodeficiencies?

Burns, trauma, surgery, or obstruction

7

What are 3 examples of adaptive primary immunodeficiencies?

T-cell, B-cell, and combined immunodeficinces

8

What are 6 examples of adaptive secondary immunodeficiencies?

Malnutrition, AIDS, cancer, transplantations, stress, pregnancy

9

If you have a C3 complement deficiency, what organisms are you likely to get infection from?

Enterobacteriaceae, Gram positive cocci, Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa

10

Who is likely to get neisseria infections?

People with MAC complement deficiencies

11

What type of bacterial infections do people with chronic granulomatous disease get?

CATALASE POSITIVE BACTERIA

-Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus, Mucor (Rhizopus)

12

Who is at risk of infections with these bugs?
Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii

Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency Patients

13

Why do burns cause secondary innate deficiencies?

They damage the cutaneous microbial barrier and vascularized tissue

14

How do organisms gain access to blood in a trauma or surgery and what can this lead too?

Via wound or GI
-Lead to sepsis and shock

15

What things do obstruction affect that can cause a secondary innate deficiency?

Urine flow, ciliary action, and peristalsis

16

What type of bacterial infections are common in burns?

1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa
2. S. Aureus
3. Coagulase negative Staph
4. Enterobacteriaceae

17

What type of fungal infections are common in burns?

1. Candida (localized)
2. Aspergillus
3. Mucor (disseminated)

18

What types of viral infections are common in burn patients?

Herpes... but these are uncommon

19

What % of nosocomial infections are catheter related?

40%

20

What kind of bacteria can cause bacteremia due to catheters (obstruction)?

1. E. Coli
2. K. Pneumoniae
3. Proteus
4. Pseudomonas
5. Yeast
6. Enterococci
7. S. Epidermidis

21

What does X-linked agammaglobulinemia cause?

No B cells in the periphery

22

What bugs are seen in X-linked agammaglobulinemia?

1. S. Pneumoniae
2. H. Influenzae

23

In Hyper-IgM syndrome and selective IgA deficiency where do you see bacterial infections?

At mucosal surfaces

24

What types of viruses are seen with Hyper-IgM syndrome and selective IgA deficiency?

Non-enveloped (B19 and norovirus)

25

What does DiGeorges syndrome affect?

T-cells

26

What kind of pathogens affect DiGeorges patients?

Viruses and fungi

27

In SCID (combined immunodeficiency) what types of infections would you see?

Bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites

28

What is required to ensure growth, maintenance, and specific functions?

Cellular balance between supply of nutrients and energy and the body's demand for them

29

What types of cells are affected by malnutrition?

T cell and B cell immunity

30

What was the progression of HIV?

Asymptomatic Infection -->
Persistent, generalized lymphadenopathy -->
Symptomatic -->
AIDS defining conditions