Flashcards in Opportunistic Infections- Dr. Moscatello Deck (103)
What constitutes a compromised host?
More than or equal to one defect in the bodies natural defense against microbial inbaders
What are compromised hosts at risk for?
Increased likelihood of suffering from severe and life threatening infections
What is a primary deficiency?
Something that's inherited or congenital
What a secondary deficiency?
Something due to underlying disease state or results from treatment from disease
What are 2 examples of innate primary immunodeficiencies?
Complement or phagocytic deficiencies
What are 4 examples of secondary innate immunodeficiencies?
Burns, trauma, surgery, or obstruction
What are 3 examples of adaptive primary immunodeficiencies?
T-cell, B-cell, and combined immunodeficinces
What are 6 examples of adaptive secondary immunodeficiencies?
Malnutrition, AIDS, cancer, transplantations, stress, pregnancy
If you have a C3 complement deficiency, what organisms are you likely to get infection from?
Enterobacteriaceae, Gram positive cocci, Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Who is likely to get neisseria infections?
People with MAC complement deficiencies
What type of bacterial infections do people with chronic granulomatous disease get?
CATALASE POSITIVE BACTERIA
-Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Aspergillus, Mucor (Rhizopus)
Who is at risk of infections with these bugs?
Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii
Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency Patients
Why do burns cause secondary innate deficiencies?
They damage the cutaneous microbial barrier and vascularized tissue
How do organisms gain access to blood in a trauma or surgery and what can this lead too?
Via wound or GI
-Lead to sepsis and shock
What things do obstruction affect that can cause a secondary innate deficiency?
Urine flow, ciliary action, and peristalsis
What type of bacterial infections are common in burns?
1. Pseudomonas aeruginosa
2. S. Aureus
3. Coagulase negative Staph
What type of fungal infections are common in burns?
1. Candida (localized)
3. Mucor (disseminated)
What types of viral infections are common in burn patients?
Herpes... but these are uncommon
What % of nosocomial infections are catheter related?
What kind of bacteria can cause bacteremia due to catheters (obstruction)?
1. E. Coli
2. K. Pneumoniae
7. S. Epidermidis
What does X-linked agammaglobulinemia cause?
No B cells in the periphery
What bugs are seen in X-linked agammaglobulinemia?
1. S. Pneumoniae
2. H. Influenzae
In Hyper-IgM syndrome and selective IgA deficiency where do you see bacterial infections?
At mucosal surfaces
What types of viruses are seen with Hyper-IgM syndrome and selective IgA deficiency?
Non-enveloped (B19 and norovirus)
What does DiGeorges syndrome affect?
What kind of pathogens affect DiGeorges patients?
Viruses and fungi
In SCID (combined immunodeficiency) what types of infections would you see?
Bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites
What is required to ensure growth, maintenance, and specific functions?
Cellular balance between supply of nutrients and energy and the body's demand for them
What types of cells are affected by malnutrition?
T cell and B cell immunity