Flashcards in Intro to Oncology Deck (111)
Top 3 new cases of CA for men and women?
2. Lung and bronchus
3. Colon and rectum
Top 3 CA deaths for men and women?
1. Lung and bronchus
3. Colon and rectum
What accounts for at least 30% of cancer deaths?
What are some CA prevention strategies?
1. Smoking cessation
2. Smoking prevention
3. Sun avoidance
4. Dietary modifications
What % of American smokers began before age 18?
What % of high school students have tried smoking?
Do people who quit smoking regardless of age live longer than those who continue to smoke?
Qutting before age 50 cuts the risk of dying in the next 15 years by what?
What cancers are 85-90% preventable with appropriate screening?
1. Colorectal: Fecal occult blood testing and colonoscopy
2. Cervical: Pap and pelvis
3. Breast: Self-exams and mammography
4. Prostate: DRE and PSA
5. Oral Cavity: Visits
6. Skin: Physical exam
What 4 things are part of the approach to CA dx?
1. Careful history
2. Careful physical exam
3. Radiological imaging
4. Tissue biopsy
What 4 things should be assessed when taking history?
2. Smoking and alcohol
3. Occupational exposures
4. Family history
How much tissue should be taken for biopsy?
As much as is safely possible
What 4 things are determined from a tissue biopsy?
3. Degree of invasiveness
4. Molecular diagnostic and prognostic information
What is it called when the entire tumor mass is removed with a margin of normal tissue surrounding the mass?
What is it called when a wedge of tissue is removed trying to include the majority of the cross-sectional diameter of the tumor?
How is a core needle biopsy usually done?
With endoscope or CT... smaller tissue sample
What gets a cell suspension from within the mass and is very limited sample... usually CT guided or direct palpation of mass?
Fine needle aspiration
What 3 things are used for clinical staging?
1. Physical examination
2. Imaging procedures like XR, CT, Isotope scans
3. BM examination for some tumors
What is done to determine pathologic staging?
Histologic examination of all tissues removed at surgery
What does higher clinical stage correlate with?
Higher tumor burden and less curability
What does the stage usually dictate or mandate?
What 2 things must be taken into account with prognosis and planning treatment?
Physiological reserve of the patient (age and karnofsky and ECOG performance scores) and molecular markers
Where is hematopoiesis week 2 to 12 of gestation?
What is produced from the yolk sac?
Only RBC for oxygenation
Where is hematopoisis from week 6 of gestation until postnatal week 1?
Fetal liver and spleen
When does hematopoiesis peak in the fetal liver and spleen?
-Declines after month 6 and ends shortly after birth
When does hematopoesis begin in the BM?
2-4 months gestation
What is the major site of hematopoiesis after month 6 gestation?>
In infancy, where is hematopoeisis?