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Flashcards in Intro to Oncology Deck (111)
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1

Top 3 new cases of CA for men and women?

1. Prostate/Breast
2. Lung and bronchus
3. Colon and rectum

2

Top 3 CA deaths for men and women?

1. Lung and bronchus
2. Prostate/Breast
3. Colon and rectum

3

What accounts for at least 30% of cancer deaths?

30%

4

What are some CA prevention strategies?

1. Smoking cessation
2. Smoking prevention
3. Sun avoidance
4. Dietary modifications

5

What % of American smokers began before age 18?

Over 80%

6

What % of high school students have tried smoking?

58%

7

Do people who quit smoking regardless of age live longer than those who continue to smoke?

YES

8

Qutting before age 50 cuts the risk of dying in the next 15 years by what?

50%

9

What cancers are 85-90% preventable with appropriate screening?

1. Colorectal: Fecal occult blood testing and colonoscopy
2. Cervical: Pap and pelvis
3. Breast: Self-exams and mammography
4. Prostate: DRE and PSA
5. Oral Cavity: Visits
6. Skin: Physical exam

10

What 4 things are part of the approach to CA dx?

1. Careful history
2. Careful physical exam
3. Radiological imaging
4. Tissue biopsy

11

What 4 things should be assessed when taking history?

1.Underlying diseases
2. Smoking and alcohol
3. Occupational exposures
4. Family history

12

How much tissue should be taken for biopsy?

As much as is safely possible

13

What 4 things are determined from a tissue biopsy?

1. Histology
2. Grade
3. Degree of invasiveness
4. Molecular diagnostic and prognostic information

14

What is it called when the entire tumor mass is removed with a margin of normal tissue surrounding the mass?

Excisional biopsy

15

What is it called when a wedge of tissue is removed trying to include the majority of the cross-sectional diameter of the tumor?

Incisional biopsy

16

How is a core needle biopsy usually done?

With endoscope or CT... smaller tissue sample

17

What gets a cell suspension from within the mass and is very limited sample... usually CT guided or direct palpation of mass?

Fine needle aspiration

18

What 3 things are used for clinical staging?

1. Physical examination
2. Imaging procedures like XR, CT, Isotope scans
3. BM examination for some tumors

19

What is done to determine pathologic staging?

Histologic examination of all tissues removed at surgery

20

What does higher clinical stage correlate with?

Higher tumor burden and less curability

21

What does the stage usually dictate or mandate?

Specific treatments

22

What 2 things must be taken into account with prognosis and planning treatment?

Physiological reserve of the patient (age and karnofsky and ECOG performance scores) and molecular markers

23

Where is hematopoiesis week 2 to 12 of gestation?

Yolk sac

24

What is produced from the yolk sac?

Only RBC for oxygenation

25

Where is hematopoisis from week 6 of gestation until postnatal week 1?

Fetal liver and spleen

26

When does hematopoiesis peak in the fetal liver and spleen?

Months 3-6
-Declines after month 6 and ends shortly after birth

27

When does hematopoesis begin in the BM?

2-4 months gestation

28

What is the major site of hematopoiesis after month 6 gestation?>

BM

29

In infancy, where is hematopoeisis?

All bones

30

What happens to hematopoeisis in childhood and adolescence?

Progressive decrease of hematopoetic marrow in the long bones