Anxiolytic And Hypnotic Drugs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Anxiolytic And Hypnotic Drugs Deck (42)
1

What Anxiolytic drugs do we need to know? (which is a BDZ antagonist?) (7)

  • Alprazolam
  • Buspirone
  • Clonazepam
  • Chlodizepoxide
  • Diazepam
  • Flumazenil (BDZ antagonist)
  • Lorazepam

2

What Hypnotic drugs do we need to know? (8)

  • Chloral hydrate
  • Eszopiclone
  • Flurazepam
  • Secobarbital
  • Ramelteon
  • Triazolam
  • Zaleplon
  • Zolpidem

3

What muscle relaxants do we need to know? (2)

  • Baclofen
  • Tizanidine

4

What age group has the highest percentage of persons with anxiety disorders?

Age 30-44 (35%)

5

GAD is described as generalized persistent anxiety for at least _ months duration

1

6

What are some psychological correlates of GAD?

  • Apprehensive expectation
  • Worry, fear, and anticipation of misfortune to self and others
  • Hyperattentiveness
  • Distractibility, difficulty in concentrating
  • Insomnia, feeling on edge, impatience

7

What are some somatic correlates of anxiety?

  • ANS arousal (sweating, tachycardia, cold clammy hands, dry mouth, GI upset, frequent urniation)
  • Voluntary Muscle Activation - Jitteriness

8

What types of waves are present in the following stages of the sleep/awake cycle?

  • Awake:
  • Drowsy:
  • Stage 1:
  • Stage 2:
  • Stage 4:
  • REM sleep:

 

  • Awake: low voltage, random fast
  • Drowsy: alpha waves
  • Stage 1: theta waves
  • Stage 2: sleep spindle and k complexes
  • Stage 4: delta waves
  • REM sleep: low voltage-random, fast with sawtooth waves

9

What neurotransmitters are associated witht the following types of sleep?

  • Slow-wave sleep:
  • REM sleep:

  • Slow-wave sleep: Serotonin
  • REM sleep: Norepinephrine

10

What is insomnia? What is hypersomnia?

  • Insomnia - disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep
  • Hypersomnia - disorders of excessive sleep or sleepiness

11

What drugs are used to treat anxiety AND insomnia?

  • Benzodiazepines (and related drugs)
  • SSRIs (commonly used)
  • Buspirone
  • Classical Antihistamines
  • Alcohol, Cannabis, Opiates
  • Barbiturates

12

Where is GABA localized in the brain?

  • Substantia Nigra
  • Globus Pallidus
  • Hippocampus
  • Limbic Structures (Amygdala)
  • Hypothalamus
  • Spinal Cord

13

What is the precursor for the formation of GABA?

Glutamate (from mitochondria)

14

What effect does GABA elicit when bound to the BDZ receptor?

Allows flow of chloride ions through the cell membrane leading to hyperpolarization

15

What is the Benzodiazepine antagonist (blocks action at benzodiazepines at the receptor)?

Flumazenil

16

What is the MOA of Buspirone?

Partial agonist for 5-HT1A - inhibitions of adenylate cyclase and opens K+ channels

17

What benzodiazepines are used to treat anxiety?

  • Diazepam
  • Chlordiazepoxide
  • Alprazolam
  • Lorazepam
  • Clonazepam

18

Which benzodiazepine has a short duration and causes forebrain depression?

Which benzodiazepine has a long duration and causes broad CNS depression?

  • Which benzodiazepine has a short duration and causes forebrain depression?
    • Alprazolam
  • Which benzodiazepine has a long duration and causes broad CNS depression?
    • Diazepam

19

Which Benzodiazepines are used as hypnotics?

  • Flurazepam
  • Triazolam
  • Lorazepam
  • Zolpidem
  • Zaleplon
  • Eszopiclone

20

Compare Diazepam and Lorazepam in terms of the following...

  • Lipophilicity:
  • Onset of action:
  • Active metabolites:
  • Duration of action after single dose:

  • Lipophilicity:
    • Loarzepam is less lipophilic than Diazepam
  • Onset of action:
    • Diazepam has a fast onset of action
    • Lorazepam has slower absorption and onset
  • Active metabolites:
    • Diazepam has active metabolites that change redistribution speed in multiple dose situations
  • Duration of action after single dose:
    • Lorazepam has a longer duration of action

21

What are the CNS affects associated with Benzodiazepines?

  • Decreased anxiety
  • Sedation
  • Hypnosis
  • Muscle relaxation
  • Anterograde amnesia (IV administration)
  • Anticonvulsant action
  • Minimal CV and respiratory actions at therapeutic doses

22

What drug interactions are associated with benzodiazepines?

  • Produce additive CNS depression with other depressant drugs (ethanol, sedative hypnotics, sedating antihistamines)
  • Drugs that affect hepatic metabolism (cimetidine)

23

Which benzodiazepine can also be used as a muscle relaxant?

Which can be used for alcohol withdrawal?

Which can be used for acute manic episodes?

  • Which benzodiazepine can also be used as a muscle relaxant? - Diazepam
  • Which can be used for alcohol withdrawal? - Chlordiazepoxide
  • Which can be used for acute manic episodes? - Clonazepam

24

What are the symptoms of benzodiazepine withdrawal?

  • Anxiety
  • Insomnia
  • Irritability
  • Headache
  • Hyperacusis
  • Hallucinations
  • Seizures

25

How do you treat benzodiazepine abuse?

  • Graudal dose reduction
  • Switch to longer acting drugs

26

How long does it take for the therapeutic effects of Buspirone to occur?

What makes it different than the benzodiazepines?

Therapeutic effects take 1-2 weeks to occur

Less sedating than benzodiazepines and does not potentiate other sedative-hypnotics and depressants nor suppress symptoms of their withdrawal (no cross tolerance)

27

What are the effects of hypnotic benzodiazepines on sleep?

  • Decreased latency to sleep
  • Increases in stage 1 and 2 sleep; decreased time in stage 3 and 4 sleep and REM sleep
  • Rebound insomnia upon withdrawal

28

What are the adverse effects of hypnotics?

  • Daytime sedation
  • Ataxia
  • Rebound insomnia
  • Toelrance and dependence
  • Occasional idiosyncratic excitement and stimulation
  • Increased death rate associated with use (possibly)

29

Zolpidem and Zaleplon

Binding site:

Use (aside from as a hypnotic):

Effect on stage 3 and 4 sleep:

 

Zolpidem and Zaleplon

  • Binding site: BDZ receptor on GABA receptor complex
  • Use (aside from as a hypnotic): weak anxiolytic, muscle relaxant and anticonvulsant
  • Effect on stage 3 and 4 sleep: stage 3 and 4 sleep preserved (unlike benzodiazepine hypnotics)

30

What are the differences between Zolpidem and Zaleplon in terms of duration of action, onset of action, and elimination half life?

  • Duration of action
    • Zolpidem: 5-6 hours (7-8 in sustained release)
    • Zaleplon: Shorter duration of action
  • Onset of action
    • Zaleplon has a faster onset of action
  • Elimination half life
    • Zaleplon has a shorter terminal elimination half-life

31

Other Hypnotic Drugs

What is the MOA of Eszopliclone?

What is the MOA of Ramelteon?

  • Eszopliclone - similar mechanism to zolpidem and zaleplon - interaction with GABA-receptor complex at binding domains close to or allosterically coupled to BDZ receptor
  • Ramelteon - Melatonin MT1 and MT2 receptor agonist

32

What classification of drugs are raidly absorbed and distributed, highly lipid soluble, and eliminated primarily by renal excretion?

Barbiturates

33

What are the pharmacological actions (adverse effects) of barbiturates?

  • General CNS depression
  • Anticonvulsant
  • Respiratory depression
  • CV effects (decreased blood pressure)
  • Induction of hepatic drug metabolism
  • Exacerbation of acute intermittent porphyria
  • Tolerance/Dependence/Poisoning

34

What drug interactions are associated with barbiturates?

  • Additive with other CNS depressants such as alcohol, other sedative hypnotics and antihistamines
  • Drugs that affect microsomal drug metabolism

35

Describe the lipid solubility, onset of action, and duration of Thiopental and Secobarbital

  • Thiopental
    • High lipid solubility; 0.5 minutes onset of action, 0.2 hours duraiton of action
  • Secobarbital
    • Moderate lipid solubility; 10-15 minutes onset of action; 3-4 hours duration of action

 

36

What is chloral hydrate?

What is its active metabolite?

What is its clinical use?

  • What is chloral hydrate?
    • An aldehyde hydrate with a pungent taste
  • What is its active metabolite?
    • Trichloroethanol
  • What is its clinical use?
    • Treats insomnia

37

What is the MOA of Suvorexant?

Orexin receptor antagonist

Orexins are neuropeptide central promoters of wakefulness through excitement of brain regions involved in arousal and attention

38

How is Diazepam used as a muscle relaxant?

Its action in reducing spasticity is at least partly mediated in the spinal cord - can be used in patients with muscle spasm of almost any origin including local trauma

39

What is the MOA of the skeletal muscle relaxant, Baclofen?

How does it differ from Diazepam?

  • What is the MOA of the skeletal muscle relaxant, Baclofen?
    • GABA-mimetic agent that works at GABA-B receptors causing hyperpolarization and presynaptic inhibition
  • How does it differ from Diazepam?
    • Produces much less sedation

40

What is the MOA of Tizanidine?

What are its side effects?

What drugs does it interact with?

  • α2- adrenergic agonist that is related to clonidine – may enhance most presynaptic and postsynaptic inhibition
  • SE: drowsiness, hypotension, dry mouth and asthenia
  • Interacts with ciprofloxacin and fluvoxamine (CYP1A2 inhibitors)

41

What toxin can be used for long acting effects on local muscle spasms?

Botulinum toxin

42

What is the MOA and clinical use of Dantrolene?

  • Reduces skeletal muscle contraction by interfering with excitation-contraction coupling in the muscle fiber
  • Used in treatment of malignant hyperthermia