Flashcards in ARTHOLOGY OF THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN Deck (29):
The ligamentous sacro-iliac joints (or most of the ligamentous joints of the vertebral column) are examples of which joint classification?
Which classification of cartilage joint is the first to appear developmentally?
Which cartilage joint has limited motion, lies in the median plane and occurs between bones formed by endochondral ossification?
What is the generic function of ligaments?
stimulate reflex contraction of muscles around the joint
What are the characteristics of type II articular receptors?
located in deeper strata of the fibrous capsule, resemble Pacinian corpuscles, most numerous in the cervical spine and monitor the joint during normal range of motion
What are the characteristics of type III articular receptors?
present in collateral and intrinsic ligaments, resemble Golgi tendon organs, not initially observed along the vertebral column and monitor extreme joint motion
What is the function of type IV articular receptors?
nociceptive, they monitor pain
Type IVa articular receptors would be present in what locations?
fibrous capsule, articular fat pads or adventitia of blood vessels
Type IVb articular receptors would be present in what locations?
accessory ligaments in general, dense in the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spine
What are the three modifications of articular synovial membrane?
1. synovial villi
2. articular fat pads or Haversian glands
3. synovial menisci and intra-articular discs
What is the apparent function of synovial villi?
increase the surface of synovial membrane available for secretion - absorption phenomena
Articular fat pads are most numerous in what location along the vertebral column?
What are the specific functions of type A synovial cells?
What is the specific function of type B synovial cells?
secrete proteinaceous substances and hyaluronic acid
Which collagen fiber type predominates in articular cartilage?
What is the primary function of bound glycosaminoglycans in articular cartilage?
form a network for water retention
What is implied when cartilage is said to have elastic properties?
cartilage can deform and returns to original volume rapidly, a time independent property
What is implied when cartilage is said to have viscoelastic properties?
cartilage can deform but returns to original volume slowly, a time dependent property
What are the properties of synovial fluid?
it is yellow-white, viscous, slightly alkaline and tastes salty
What is a complex synovial joint (diarthrosis)?
within the simple joint or the compound joint, the articulating surfaces are separated by an articular disc (intra-articular disc) or meniscus
What morphological classification of synovial joints is classified as nonaxial?
plane (diarthrosis arthrodial)
What morphological classifications of synovial joints would be classified as uniaxial?
hinge (diarthrosis ginglymus) and pivot (diarthrosis trochoid)
What morphological classifications of synovial joints would be classified as biaxial?
(diarthrosis) bicondylar, (diarthrosis) condylar, (diarthrosis) ellipsoidal and saddle (diarthrosis sellar)
What morphological classification of synovial joints would be classified as multiaxial?
ball and socked (diarthrosis enarthrosis), (diarthrosis spheroidal), (diarthrosis cotyloid) are all classifications given to the same joint
Diarthrosis ginglymus joints are commonly called ____ joints based on action
Diarthrosis trochoid joints are commonly called ___ joints based on action
What are the common ligaments of the vertebral column?
those ligaments commonly found between vertebral couples from C2/C3 to L4/L5
What is the maximum number of common ligaments identified with a vertebral couple?