TRANSITION ZONES OF THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN - Transition zone characteristics Flashcards Preview

Spinal Anatomy Exam 3 > TRANSITION ZONES OF THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN - Transition zone characteristics > Flashcards

Flashcards in TRANSITION ZONES OF THE VERTEBRAL COLUMN - Transition zone characteristics Deck (46):
1

What are the transition zones of the vertebral column?

occipitocervical, cervicothoracic, thoracolumbar, lumbosacral, and sacrococcygeal zones

2

What are the possible transition zone - segmental combinations?

cervicalization of occiput, occipitalization of C1
dorsalization of C7, cervicalization of T1
lumbarization of T12, dorsalization of L1
sacralization of L5, lumbarization of S1
coccygealization of S5, sacralization of Co1

3

What is/are the characteristics of cervicalization of occiput?

an increase in occipital bone size, formation of new or larger lines, on the occipital bone

4

What is/are the characteristics of occipitalization of C1?

the atlas may be partially or completely fused to the occiput

5

What is another way of implying occipitalization of C1?

atlas assimilation

6

What is the incidence of occipitalization of C1?

0.1% to 0.8%

7

When do the centers of ossification for the odontoid process first appear?

during the last trimester in utero

8

When do the bilateral ossification centers for the odontoid process fuse?

at or shortly after birth

9

What joint forms between the odontoid process ossification centers and the centrum of C2?

the subdental synchondrosis

10

Ossification between the odontoid process and centrum joint of C2 first appears at what age?

4 years old

11

A joint between the odontoid process and centrum of C2 is last identified at what age?

7 years old

12

What is the name given to the condition in which the joint formed between the odontoid process and centrum of C2 persists beyond age 7?

os odontoideum

13

What is the name given to the joint between the odontoid process and centrum of C2 which is still evident beyond age 7?

persistent subdental synchondrosis

14

What is the name given to the joint formed between the tip of the dens and the odontoid process centers of ossification?

tip of the dens synchondrosis

15

At what age will the tip of the dens center of ossification appear?

sometime in early adolescence

16

At what age will the tip of the dens fuse with the odontoid process?

before age 12

17

What is the terminal ossicle?

a persistence beyond age 12 of the joint formed between the tip of the dens and odontoid process centers of ossification

18

What is a basilar impression?

persistence of the nonunion of the basilar and condylar parts of the chondrocranium such that the cartilage deforms due to the weight of the brain

19

What is a basilar invagination?

the upper cervical spine appears to be invaginated into the skull on x-ray analysis

20

What is/are the characteristics of dorsalization of C7?

the addition of a rib and changes in superior articular facet orientation are typical

21

What is the incidence of rib-related changes following dorsalization of C7?

from one-half to two and one-half percent of the population

22

What is the gender bias suggested in dorsalization of C7?

female

23

What alteration in C7 facet orientation may accompany dorsalization?

the superior articular facet of C7 may change from back, upward, and medial (BUM) to that of a typical thoracic facet...back, upward, and lateral (BUL); the inferior articular facet is unchanged

24

What alteration in C6 facet orientation may accompany dorsalization?

C6 demonstrates a change in inferior articular facet orientation from forward, lateral, and downward (FoLD) to forward, medial, and downward (ForMeD) ; the superior articular facet is unchanged

25

What percent of the population may demonstrate thoracic-like features at C7?

up to 46%

26

What rib-related changes may accompany cervicalization of T1?

the first rib may decrease in mean relative length or become absent

27

What will result from fusion of a short rib to the T1 transverse process

the transverse foramen

28

What T1 facet orientation changes may accompany cervicalization?

the superior articular facet may change from back, upward, and lateral (BUL) to back, upward, and medial (BUM) ; the inferior articular facet is unchanged

29

What C7 facet orientation changes may accompany cervicalization?

the inferior articular facet may change from forward, medial, and downward (ForMeD) to forward, lateral, and downward (FoLD) ; the superior articular facet is unchanged

30

What is the incidence of cervicalization of Tq in the population?

up to 28%

31

What rib-related changes may accompany dorsalization of L1?

elongated bones shaped like ribs may appear

32

What is the incidence of lumbar ribs in the population?

over 7% of the population demonstrates lumbar ribs

33

What L1 facet orientation changes may accompany dorsalization?

the superior articular facet may change from concave, back, upward, and medial (BUM) to flat, back, upward, and lateral (BUL); the inferior articular facet is unchanged

34

What T12 facet orientation changes may accompany dorsalization?

the inferior articular facet may change from convex, forward, lateral, and downward (FoLD) to flat, forward, medial, and downward (ForMeD) ; the superior articular facet is unchanged

35

What is the gender bias associated with dorsalization of L1?

males are two to three times more affected

36

What rib-related changes may accompany lumbarization of T12?

a significant shortening of the mean relative length of 113mm of the twelfth rib or it becomes absent

37

What T12 facet orientation may accompany lumbarization?

the superior articular facet may change from flat, back, upward, and lateral (BUL) to concave, back, upward, and medial (BUM) ; the inferior articular facet is unchanged

38

What T11 facet orientation changes may accompany lumbarization?

the inferior articular facet may change from flat, forward, medial, and downward (ForMeD) to convex, forward, lateral, and downard (FoLD) ; the superior articular facet is unchanged

39

What unique characteristics of lumbarization of S1 were stressed in class?

squaring of the vertebral body of S1 and flaring of the sacral ala

40

What is squaring of the vertebral body of S1?

the S1 vertebral body has similar anterior and posterior heights, hence a lack of wedging

41

What is flaring of the sacral ala?

the transverse process of the ala appears to elevate as though separating from the rest of the sacral ala

42

What is characteristic of sacralization of L5?

L5 may be partially or completely fused to the sacrum

43

What is the incidence of sacralization of L5 in the population?

41% to 85%

44

Which segment demonstrates the greatest morphological variation along the spine?

L5

45

What is the incidence of variation within the sacrococcygeal region in the population?

up to 14%

46

What is characteristic of sacralization of Co1?

the premature fusion of Co1 to the sacrum