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Spinal Anatomy Exam 3 > MYOLOGY OF THE BACK > Flashcards

Flashcards in MYOLOGY OF THE BACK Deck (101):
1

Which of the muscles attaching to spinous processes represent layer one of the true back?

trapezius, latissimus dorsi

2

Which of the muscles attaching to spinous processes represent layer two of the true back?

rhomboid major, rhomboid minor

3

Which muscles attaching to the transverse processes represent layer two of the true back?

levator scapulae

4

The trapezius is innervated by what nerve?

the spinal accessory nerve

5

What forms the spinal accessory nerve innervating the trapezius?

C1-C5 cord levels contribute to the spinal root of the spinal accessory nerve

6

The latissimus dorsi is innervated by what nerve?

the thoracodorsal nerve

7

What forms the thoracodorsal nerve innervating the latissimus dorsi?

ventral rami from C6-C8

8

Which of the muscles of the true back are innervated by the dorsal sacpular nerve?

levator scapulae, rhomboid major, rhomboid minor

9

What forms the dorsal scapular nerve?

the ventral ramus of C5

10

The levator scapulae is innervated by what nerves?

the dorsal scapular nerve (ventral ramus of C5) and branches from C3. C4 ventral rami

11

The rhomboid major is innervated by what nerves?

the dorsal scapular nerve (ventral ramus of C5) and branches from C4 ventral ramus

12

The rhomboid minor is innervated by what nerves?

the dorsal scapular nerve (ventral ramus of C5) and branches from C4 ventral ramus

13

What muscles lie beneath the trapezius in the neck?

splenius capitis and splenius cervicis

14

What does the word "splenius" mean?

it is the greek word for bandage

15

What part of the vertebra forms the osseous origin for the splenius muscles?

the spinous process

16

What is the innervation of the splenius capitis?

dorsal rami of middle cervical spinal nerves (C3-C5)

17

Spenius cervicis will attach to what locations on the spine?

lateral mass of C1 and posterior tubercle of transverse process on C1-C4

18

What is the innervation of the splenius cervicis?

dorsal rami of lower cervical spinal nerves (C5-C7 cord levels)

19

Which muscles represent the fourth layer of the true back?

the erector spinae or sacrospinalis muscles

20

Which muscles are identified as erector spinae or sacrospinalis muscles?

iliocostalis, longissimus, spinalis

21

What osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as an origin to the iliocostalis lumborum?

spinous processes of T11-T12, L1-L5, median sacral crest, lateral sacral crest

22

What is the insertion for the iliocostalis lumborum?

costal angles of the lower 6-9 (lol) ribs (rib6-rib12 or rib3-rib12)

23

What is the innervation of the iliocostalis lumborum?

dorsal rami of lower thoracic and all lumbar spinal nerves

24

Which subdivision of the iliocostalis muscle appears to have a reversal of origin-insertion?

iliocostalis lumborum pars lumborum

25

What osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as an origin to the iliocostalis thoracics?

none

26

What osseous part of the vertebral column serves as an insertion for the iliocostalis thoracis?

transverse process of C7

27

Which subdivision of the iliocostalis primarily originates and inserts on ribs?

iliocostalis thoracis

28

What is the innervation of the iliocostalis thoracis?

dorsal rami of upper 6 throacic spinal nerves (T1-T6 cord levels)

29

What osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as an origin to the iliocostalis cervicis?

none

30

What is the innervation of the iliocostalis cervicis?

dorsal rami of T1, T2 spinal nerves, sometimes C8 spinal nerve (C8, T1, T2 cord levels)

31

What osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as an origin to the longissimus thoracis?

accessory process an transverse processes of L1-L5. spinous processes of L3-L5 and median sacral crest S1-S3

32

Which erector spinae muscle is attached to the accessory process?

longissimus thoracis

33

What is the inneration of the longissimus thoracis?

dorsal rami of all thoracic and lumbar spinal nerves (cord levels T1-T12, L1-L5)

34

What osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as an origin to the longissimus thoracis pars lumborum?

accessory process and medial part of transverse process of L1-L5

35

What is the insertion for the longissimus thoracis pars lumborum?

posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) of the inominate bone

36

Which subdivision of the longissimus muscle apppears to have a reversal of origin - insertion?

longissimus thoracis pars lumborum

37

What is the innervation of the longissimus capitis?

dorsal rami of C1-C3 or C4 spinal nerves, (C1-C3 or C4 cord levels)

38

Which erector spinae muscles attach to cervical articular processes?

longissimus cervicis and longissimus capitis

39

What is the innervation of the spinalis thoracis?

dorsal rami of all thoracic and upper lumbar spinal nerves

40

What is the innervation of the spinalis cervicis?

dorsal rami of all cervical spinal nerves (C1-C8 cord levels)

41

What is the innervation of the spinalis capitis?

dorsal rami of lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal nerves

42

Which muscles are identified as trasnversospinalis muscle?

semispinalis, multifidis, and rotators

43

Based on the name of this group (transversospinalis) what is the origin - insertion of the transversospinalis?

transverse process origin, spinous process insertion

44

How many vertebrae can be attached to a single segment by transversospinalis muscles?

as many as nine vertebrae

45

What segment will represent the lowest attachment site for the semispinalis thoracis?

T12

46

What is the innervation of the semispinalis thoracics?

dorsal rami of T1-T6 spinal nerves (cord levels T1-T6)

47

What osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as an origin to the semispinalis cervicis?

transverse tubercles of T1-T5 or T6 and articular processes of C4-C7

48

What is the innervation of the semispinalis cervicis?

dorsal rami of C6-C8 spinal nerves (Cord levels C6-C8)

49

What osseous parts of the vertebral column serve as an origin to the semispinalis capitis?

transverse tubercles of C7, T1-T6 or T7 and articular processes of C4-C6

50

What is the innervation of the semispinalis capitis?

dorsal rami of C1-C6 spinal nerves (cord levels C1-C6)

51

The biventer cervicis is formed by the fusion of what muscles?

semispinalis capitis and spinalis capitis

52

What regional subdivisions are now identified with multifidis muscles?

lumbar multifidis, thoracic multifidis, and cervical multifidis

53

Which transversospinalis muscle attaches to articular and mammillary processes along the spine

multifidis

54

What is the innervation of the classic multifidis?

dorsal rami of C3-C8, T1-T12, L1-L5 and S1 spinal nerves (cord levels C3-C8, T1-T12, L1-L5 and S1)

55

Contraction of multifidis cervicis will result in what movements?

alters the zygapophyseal capsular ligament response to load distribution
determines the cervical spine response to injury as evidenced by neck pain and is a significant contributor to postural control of the head and neck

56

Which subdivision of multifidis may demonstrate a reversal of origin - insertion?

multifidis lumoborum

57

Contraction of multifidis lumborum will result in what movements?

lateral flexion and rotation of the lumbar spine, maintains the lumbar lordotic curve and prevents entrapment of lumbar zygapophyseal capsular ligament during movement

58

which muscles of the spine exhibit a reversal of the expected origin - insertion?

iliocostalis lumborum par lumborum, longissimus thoracic pars lumborum, and multifidis lumborum

59

What will replace muscles spanning one or two segmental levels in the cervicals and lumbars?

deep layers of the multifidis

60

Which suboccipital muscle lacks an attachment to the skull?

obliquus capitis inferior

61

Which nerve will innervate all suboccipital muscles

the dorsal ramus of C1, the suboccipital nerve

62

What is the origin of the obliquus capitis inferior?

C2 spinous process and lamina

63

What is the insertion of the obliquus capitis inferior?

transverse process of C1

64

Contraction of obliquus capitis inferior will result in what movement?

turns the face to the side

65

An increase in the density of muscle spindles is most apparent in which suboccipital muscle?

obliquus capitis inferior

66

Suboccipital muscle feedback relays to what additional locations in the brain?

extraocular nuclei of origin, primary visual cortex and vestibular nuclei

67

What is the result of communication between suboccipital muscles, visual centers and vestibular centers?

coordination of head and eye position

68

What is the proposed function of the suboccipital muscle group?

postural stabilizers of the atlanto-occipital and atlanto-axial joints

69

Which suboccipital muscles are known to attach to dura mater?

rectus capitis posterior major, recuts capitis posterior minor and obliquus capitis inferior

70

Interspinalis is paired in which regions of the spine?

cervical and lumbar regions

71

Based on the density of muscle spindles what is the proposed function of the interspinalis?

acts as a proprioceptive transducer in conjunction with intertransversarii to coordinate the smooth movement of the spine and to maintain appropriate posture

72

INtertransversarii are paired in which region (s) of the spine?

cervical and lumbar regions

73

Which muscle group is innervated by both dorsal rami and ventral rami of spinal nerves?

intertransversarii

74

Based on the density of muscle spindles what is the proposed function of the intertransversarii?

acts as a proprioceptive transducer in conjunction with interspinalis to coordinate the smooth movement of the spine and to maintain appropriate posture

75

What is the origin of the longus colli?

vertebral bodies of C5-C6, T1-T3 and anterior tubercles of transverse processes C3-C5

76

What will innervate the longus colli?

ventral rami of C2-C6 or C7 spinal nerves

77

What is the insertion of the longus capitis?

basilar part of the occipital bone

78

What will innervate the longus capitis?

the ventral rami of C1-C3 spinal nerves

79

What is the origin of the rectus capitis anterior?

lateral mass and costal element of the transverse process of C1

80

What will innervate the rectus capitis anterior?

ventral rami of C1-C2 spinal nerves

81

What is the insertion of the rectus capitis lateralis?

jugular process of the occipital bone

82

What will innervate the rectus capitis lateralis?

jugular process of the occipital bone

83

What will innervate the rectus capitis lateralis?

the ventral rami of C1-C2 spinal nerves

84

What is the insertion of the anterior scalene?

ridge and anterior scalene tubercle of the first rib

85

What will innervate the anterior scalene?

the ventral rami of C2-C6 spinal nerves

86

What is the insertion of the middle scalene?

between the tubercle and groove for the subclavian artery on the first rib

87

Contraction of middle scalene will result in what movements/

laterally flex the neck; elevate the first rib

88

What will innervate the middle scalene?

the ventral rami of C3-C8 spinal nerves

89

What will innervate the posterior scalene?

the ventral rami of C6-C8 spinal nerves

90

The quadratus lumborum is implicated in the formation of which ligament?

the iliolumbar ligament

91

What osseous part of the vertebral column serves as an origin to the quadratus lumborum?

transverse process of L5

92

What will innervate the quadratus lumborum?

the ventral rami of T12 and L1-L3 or L4 spinal nerves

93

What is the origin of the posas major?

vertebral bodies T12, L1-L5, S1 and transverse processes of L1-L5

94

What will innervate the posas major?

primarily the ventral rami of L2 and L3, may include ventral rami of L1 and L4 spinal nerves

95

What is the origin of the psoas minor?

vertebral bodies T12, L1

96

What will innervate the posas minor?

the ventral ramus of L1 spinal nerve

97

What will innervate the iliacus?

the femoral nerve, primarily the ventral rami of L2 and L3

98

What will innervate the levator costarum brevis?

the dorsal rami of T1-T12 spinal nerves

99

What will innervate the levator costarum longus?

the dorsal rami of the lower thoracic spinal nerves

100

What will innervate the serratus posterior superior?

the ventral rami of T2-T5 spinal nerves...intercostal nerves

101

What will innervate the serratus posterior inferior?

the ventral rami of T9-T11, the intercostal nerves and the ventral ramus of T12, the subcostal nerve