Attitudes to empire - the role and influence of individuals (16) Flashcards Preview

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Gandhi's political campaigns

1915 - returned to India and became leader of Indian National Congress
1919 Amritsar massacre pushed him to campaign for independence
He organised the:
Non-Co-operation Movement of 1920
Civil Disobedience Movement of 1930-31 and 1932-34
Quit India Movement of 1942
Achieved independence in 1947


Gandhi's Beliefs

'Hind Swaraj' - Home rule for India - established in 1909 - principle that Gandhi stuck to
Favoured peaceful resistance to the British, based on the principles of Satyagraha
Campaigned for equality between all religious groups and castes, in particular to stop discrimination of the untouchables
Wanted an independent India based upon spiritual and social traditions which included rejecting industrialisation and urbanisation


Significance of non-violent protest

Forced the British to respond with violent action which destroyed the 'civilising' idea of the British Empire in India
Hurt Britain economically which was the main driver of the Empire - made the 'Jewel' of India less significant


Anti-salt tax campaign

1930 - Gandhi led a 24 day march to Dandi where he made salt from seawater to go against the British monopoly of salt. Gandhi was arrested and more than 80,000 Indians gaoled for the civil disobedience action


Changes to the Empires administration

In 1925 the Colonial Office was split into 2 departments; the Dominions Office, with its own Secretary of State and the Colonial Office.
Now there were three cabinet members responsible to the maintaining of the Empire; Secretary of States for the Colonies, for India, and the Dominions.
On a local level, the Dominions recruited and appointed their own civil services, but the Crown still appointed a governor-general - however after 1931 Statute of Westminster this simply became a position for representing the Crown
Colonial Services were unified in 1930 - individuals no longer appointed to individual governments - the quality therefore improved
By 1945 there were more indians in the Indian Civil Service than British


Attitudes of Colonial Administrators

Pay varied - Governor of Nigeria in 1922 received an annual pay of £8250 whereas a cadet starting work in Kenya received £200
Lord Lugard of Nigeria represented the narrow minded type of administrator when he claimed in 1922 that public schools have created 'English Gentlemen' who are exceptional at 'playing the game'
A 'Trusteeship' in African nations was established and was furthered after the Second World War
In 1927, Leo Amery, Colonial Secretary wrote a White Paper arguing in favour of 'trusteeship'
1931 Lord Passfield argued in favour of a 'dual mandate'


Edwin Montagu

Secretary of State for India from 1917 to 1922
With Lord Chelmsford, Viceroy of India, he imposed the reforms which led to the Government of India Act 1919 which gave the Indians a limited degree of political representation and control of some aspects of affairs within India itself


Lord Linlithgow

Viceroy of India from 1935 to 1943
Actively promoted the enfranchisement of Indians in the Government of India Act of 1935
Believed that more reforms would undermine nationalists and give way to more 'responsible' Indian politicians
Opponent of Gandhi and resorted to repression during the civil disobedience campaigns
Oppose Gandhi and resorted to suppression during the Indian Civil Disobedience Campaign. 20,000 Indians were imprisoned in a year. Increased press censorship and ordered surveillance on Congress
1942 Congress leaders were arrested in response to the Quit India campaign
It is felt that his reactionary and repressive approach accelerated the end of the British Raj


Sir Donald Cameron

Governor of Tanganyika - built harbours and railways
Governor of Nigeria (1931-1935) - promoted exports of ground nuts and palm oil
Promoted the economic advancement of colonies and bringing the indigenous people into the civil government with an eventual advancement to self-rule


Sir Ralph Furse

Responsible for the 1930 reform of appointments to colonial service and became the director of recruitment of a new personnel division in 1931 - led to him being called the 'father of the modern Colonial Service'