Flashcards in Imperial and colonial policy (2) Deck (12):
How was the colonial office setup?
o North America
o West Indies
o Africa and Mediterranean
o General from 1870
Office headed by a Cabinet Minister with title ‘Secretary of State for the Colonies’
How was India different?
From 1858 a separate India Office with own Sec Of S
-Shows the effect of the Indian Mutiny, confidence was shaken
Early Indian administration?
Previously overseen by EIC
Defended by EIC with an army of 275,000, 235,000 of which were sepoys
In 1871 – first census – 236 million
Cost of government in India just less than cost of government of Britain
1858 administrative control of India passed over the British Gov.
Government of India Act 1858
EIC territories in India passed to British Government + company vanished
Secretary of state positions created for India. Received powers and duties from EIC directors
A council of 15 members (Indian Council)
Crown appointed a Viceroy to replace EIC governor general
Indian civil service placed under control of Sec of S.
Viceroy ruled India with Legislative Council of 5
Responsibility for finance, law, army, economy and home affairs
In provinces, Viceroy represented by provincial governors with own legislative councils
Raj employed 1000 British Civil Servants
Professional bureaucracy of British officials was unique within the Empire, attracted best administrators – great status and salary
Legal system developed – old EIC courts merged with Crown Courts and English Law prevailed
How did the British try to improve upon the EIC rule?
Greater respect for traditional Indian practices and customs
Christian missionaries actively discouraged and British Gov accepted responsibility for promotion of education
Development of public works’ schemes and transport
For Indians there was little tangible difference – Englishmen ran the subcontinent, or local princes exercised power of behalf of the Raj
1858 – ‘Doctrine of Lapse’ – Gave right to heir
At the same time however kept Indians without real power, Indian Civil Service made up of low level Bilingual Clerks
Indian Defence (1857-1890)
After 1858 conscious effort to strengthen the British Indian Army, at outbreak of mutiny – 40,000 British troops - 1880s an army of 70,000 British and 125,000 natives
Railways added following mutiny, helped swift movement of troops
Lord Canning (First Viceroy) set up an Imperial Police Force as extra layer of security
Why did Britain begin to fear the other European powers?
In 1871 - Germany united into a single country - central location and abundance of resources
Russians - expanding their economy and huge land army - Trans-Siberian Railway 1891
French - After German defeat in 1871 they were keen to gain its 'rightful place' in the world.
The Berlin Conference
- Free trade in the basin of the Congo (River Niger for Britain)
- Support for locals and suppression of slave trade
- Protect missionaries, explorers and scientists
- Further land grabbing had to be done with the notification of the other countries
- 'Effective occupation'
- 90% of Africa taken by Europeans by 1900
- No African representation
Example of Informal Empire - Latin America?
- Latin America brought in £80 million in 1865
- Accounted for 10% of Britains exports and imports in the second half of the 19th century
- Charles Morrison created the Mercantile Bank of the River Plate in Argentina in 1881 and invested directly into the countries utilities
- Pressured Mexico in 1861 to keep access and free trade open
- Royal Navy threatened Peru and Chile in 1957 and 1863
King Leopold of Belgium - hosted conference of exporters and leaders from geographical societies across Europe
Desire to protect Belgian interests in the Congo
- Native Africans were incapable of developing resources in Africa
- An International African Association should be established to coordinate Europeans' efforts
Heightened competition - became apparent Leopold intended to create a Congo Empire - would create Congo Free State in 1885 under complete control of Belgium
France extended its control from Senegal into Western Sudan in 1879
Portugal asserted its claims to control the mouth of the Congo River in 1884
Example of Informal Empire - China?
- Britain used its naval power to keep the trade of opium to China, treaty of Tientsin in 1858
- Gained control over Shanghai and Hong Kong as trading bases
- Opium War of (1857-1860) to keep its trade open
- Robert Hart was made part of the Chinese government in 1863 to protect British interests