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Effects of WW2 on British rule?

The rapid Japanese victories and conquests of Malaya and Burma destroyed the notion of British invincibility
Reveled Britain to be vulnerable
Rapid economic development occurred during the war to provide Britain with raw materials and food
Nairobi and Mombasa in East Africa and Accra and Lagos in West Africa grew rapidly post-war and became home to industrial conflict and anti-British sentiment
Men who had served in the imperial and commonwealth forces during the war returned to their colonies with a sense of entitlement and military skills


Factors causing the growth of nationalism?

Legacy of war: Black soldiers had fought alongside white soldiers and sought reward - Calls for independence in India, Palestine and Burma
Economic and social difficulties: Rapid post-war economic growth did not benefit all, those too unskilled could not access the new jobs or had their traditional industries replaced. Some British projects failed (Tanganyika Grounduts Scheme). The surplus of educated youth in places such as the Gold Coast and Kenya refused to take up manual labour.
Ethnic and religious rivalries: Some groups felt discriminated against as Britain favoured other groups for representation - British definition of 'Malay nationality' in 1949 angered the Chinese population and led to violence against Europeans. Political mobilisation of Ashanti in Gold Coast and Yoruba and Northern Muslims in Nigeria was in response to suspicions of marginilsation.
Charismatic and Western-educated leaders: Their Western Education and in some cases, travel to Europe or the USA allowed them to absorb political ideas such as liberalism, socialism, marxism, all of which led them to challenge Imperial rule. Their charisma allowed them to unite groups.
Mass political parties: By having a large following, leaders put Britain in a difficult moral position. The British leaders found it hard to refuse due to their democratic and self-determination values.


Cause of Kikuyu grievances?

Suffered a shortage of lands as they were squeezed off of it by White Settlers in the 'White Highlands''
Confined to reservations which had poor soil fertility
Forcibly evicted from their lands which was sometimes violent


Mau Mau Movement?

Setup by the Kikuyu in Kenya
Originally started in 1940s but was firmly established in 1952
Governor Sir Philip Mitchell announced in 1948 that self-rule was not possible in the near future
Government ran with little concern or concessions to the Black majority
Outraged by this - escalated murders in 1952 - White Farmers and mostly other Kikuyu who refused to take the Mau Mau oath
Chief of Kikuyu, Kungu, who spoke out against this was assassinated in October 1952
The ritualistic cult of the Mau Mau caused fear in the White community - hard to deal with guerrilla warfare


British reaction to Mau Mau movement?

Led to Governor Evelyn Baring (junior) declaring a state of emergency in 1952 - black African political rights suspended and Mau Mau treated as political terrorists
Policial leaders, such as Jomo Kenyatta, were imprisoned
British troops brought in to crush the insurrection - difficult moral position as they were the white minority outsiders
Recruited a 'Home Guard' of loyal Kikuyu and used British troops supported by planes and helicopters
Kikuyu villages were relocated so the Mau Mau lost their support in the White Highlands
Mau Mau destroyed within five years
State of Emergency lifted in 1960


British atrocities in the Mau Mau uprising?

Hung suspects without strong evidence
Interned thousands in 'rehabilitation camps' - interrogated to sift out Mau Mau sympathisers
Between 1952-1956 torture was used to force admissions of guilt and 11-12,000 people were killed and 81,000 detained
1959 - the atrocities at the Hola Camp - 88 Mau Mau prisoners forced to undertake manual labour and attend rehabilitation schemes - refused - beaten by guards - 1 1 inmates killed - 77 serious injuries - was originally reported that they died from contaminated drinking water - was further reported on by the British press after Doctor found the deaths to be caused by lung congestion and haemorrhage - Government shocked and embarrassed


Effects of Mau Mau Uprising?

Influenced MacMillan's 'wind of change' speech 1960 and move towards African independence
New Governor, Sir Patrick Renison began steps towards black majority rule and independence
Independence granted in 1963 - 1500 remaining Mau Mau laid down their arms


UNMO in Malay?

Britain worked with the Nationalist party the UMNO to defeat the communists
They opposed the Federation of Malay in 1949 and began to focus on independence
UMNO had problems due to Malay being a racially divided nation - large number of ethnic Chinese - further complicated by British decision to restrict 'Malay nationality' to those of the Malay ethnicity in 1949
Ja'afar left the UMNO in 1951 to form his own Independence of Malay Party (IMP) due to ethnic issues
UNMO increased its influence through cooperation with the MCA in 1954 and MIC in 1955 to ensure electoral success but could not resolve the racial issues of the Peninsula
Britain cooperated with UNMO due to its positive ideals (extending primary schooling) and ability to combat militant independence groups such as the Malayan Races Liberation Army (MRLA) and the Malay Communist Part (MCP)


'Malayan Emergency'?

Militant attacks on farms and police stations, strike activity and disruption of transport and communication systems
British declared State of Emergency
MCP and other left-wing political groups made illegal in 1948
Took five years to defeat insurrection
1951 the High Commissioner in Malaya, Sir Henry Gurney was assassinated in his Rolls Royce by 38 MCP guerrillas
Britain desperate due to fears of communism and of losing the valuable rubber and tin market in Malaya - dollar earners
To bring back control the British used the local indigenous elite and promised gradual self-rule
Emergency ended in 1955, Tunku became the First Chief Minister of Malaya
He turned to London after his negotiations with the MCP failed and created a deal which would bring about independence by August 1957
Malaysia created in 1963
Race riots in Singapore in 1964
Singapore expelled in 1965
Racial tensions still prevalent - Britain struggled to retain influence


Situation in Nigeria?

Vast ethnic divisions
Prospered post-WW2
Nationalism was more due to Pan-Africanism rather than the sense of a common Nigeria
North was islamic, ruled by Emirs - anti-Western nationalism
West was economically advanced - sense of nationalism and independence amongst the educated
Southern nationalism - Western ideas - professional organisations of teachers, lawyers and traders and independent Christian churches
Had an elected Legislative Council since 1922 - stimulated political thinking - wartime service and an educated young population added with this for greater nationalism


Nationalist parties in Nigeria?

Emerged in the post-war period
National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons (NCNC) - Dominated by the Kgbo under Azikiwe - most popular
Action Group - Dominated by the Yoruba - resisted a unitary government and represented the economically advanced West - sought autonomous states with a federal structure
The Northern People's Congress (NPC) - Dominated by the Hausa and Fulani - led by Western-educated northern Muslims - most powerful figure was Bello, war leader of Sokoto - wanted to protect northern social and political institutions from southern influence - internal problems of rivalry amongst Muslim factions


Changes in Nigeria?

Constitutional changes drawn up from 1946-54 during political controversy as ethnic divisions intensified
South sought self-governance to promote educational opportunities and economic development
North, the Emirs demanded firm control on economic and political change
Differences between the Yotuba and Igbo grew worse as they competed for control
British granted more power to local officials and politicians - led to rivalries
South, Western and Eastern regions became formally self-governing under the Parliamentary system in 1957 - North in 1959
Full independence in 1960



South Rhodesia given self-governance in 1923 and North Rhodesia still a protectorate.
Both occupied by wealthy white settlers who sought to keep power in white hands. Britain became worried that the rich copper industry in North Rhodesia would cause the South to extend their influence into the North. Britain therefore created a Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland in 1952, known as the Central African Federation.
Was hoped that this would protect Africans in Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland from the discriminatory Southern Rhodesian laws.
Macmillan and Ian Macleod, the new Colonial Secretary from October 1959, had little choice but to break up the Federation.


Nyasaland State of Emergency

Black African nationalist congress parties emerged in both Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland and in 1959, Dr Hastings Banda returned to Nyasaland to campaign against the Federation.
The Governor of Nyasaland, Armitage, fearing the collapse of British rule declared a State of Emergency and banned the Nyasaland African Congress (NAC) and imprisoned its leaders (including Banda and Kaunda). 1,300 people were detained without trial and 2000 were imprisoned for links to the emergency. Reinforcments from North and South Rhodesia were used to round up activists and troops or the police killed 51.
A British Commission of 1959 denounced Nyasaland for its overreaction and use of force.


Nkata Bay

At Nkata Bay Northern Rhodesia in March 1959 a local Congress leader tried to secure the release of detainees at the bay, which were waiting for a steamship to the South. He called for a crowd to gather and the District Commissioner ordered troops to open fire on the crowd, fearing the situation was escalating.


Formation of Zambia

Keeneth Kaunda became the secretary-general of the African National Congress in Northern Rhodesia in 1953 and formed the Zambian (North Rhodesia) African National Congress (ZANC) in 1958 and in 1960 became president of the National independence Party (UNIP). He encouraged a ‘Cha-Cha-Cha’ campaign of civil disobedience against the British and led Zambia to independence and became its first President from 1964.



• By 1964,
• Northern Rhodesia became the new African state of Zambia under Kaunda, with the provision that they must have a black majority government and became a member of the Commonwealth.
• Nyasaland became Malawi under Banda, with the provision that they must have a black majority government and became a member of the Commonwealth.
• Southern Rhodesia under Ian Smith as Prime Minister retained a white-dominated government and in 1965 declared UDI – a Unilateral Declaration of Independence – ‘as Rhodesia’
• UDI was rejected as illegal and unconstitutional by Britain, the UN and the entire world. Britain imposed sanctions; they proved of little use, as South Africa did not cooperate. This humiliated Britain as they were seen as powerless and could not deal with its ex-colonies.
UDI triggered a 15 year civil-war between the whites and blacks.