Relations with indigenous peoples (12) Flashcards Preview

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Challenges in India?

- In the 1890s the British found opposition in the Indian Professional classes and nationalist newspapers
- Tilak the editor of 'Kesari' and Paranjape who founded 'Kaal' in 1898 were sentenced to imprisonment for stirring up hostility in 1908 - released in 1910
- Kaal was banned
- The Young India organisation, founded in 1903, became the home of political activists who planned and carried out assassinations of British officials, including Arthur Jackson a magistrate
- The partition of Bengal started the swadeshi campaign which carried out protests and most importantly boycotts of British goods, Bengal was reunited in 1911


Challenges in Africa (Somaliland)?

- Sayyid Hassan, religious warrior built up a force of 20,000 Dervish forces armed with Ottoman Empire weapons
- Wanted to drive all Christians into the sea
- From 1900 his forces raided British Somaliland
- The British joined forces with the Emperor of Ethiopia but did not stop the raiders until after the First World War
- The British lost the battle of Dul Madoba in August 1913 with their Camel Constabulary


Challenges in Africa (Zanzibar)?

- August 1896, suspicious death of pro-British leader Sultan Hamoud
- Khalid bin Barghash assumed control of Zanzibar with his 6000 troops
- The British heavily bombarded the city from ships anchored nearby and the war was over in less than two days


Challenges in Africa (West Africa)?

- Colonel Cardew introduced the 'hut tax' and instead local chiefs maintained the roads
- The locals resisted this
- Cardew started a 'scorched earth' policy and hung 96 of the chief's warriors
- The primary adversary Chief Bureh was defeated in November 1898


Challenges in the Sudan?

- Kitchener's conquest of the Sudan was covered by the Daily Mail as the fall of 'the worst tyranny in the world'
- Battle of Omdurman and the fall of Khartoum 1898
- Many Sudanese welcomed the fall of the Mahdist Regime as the Sudanese economy had declined and 50% of the population died through famine, disease and warfare
- Took British more than 30 years to subdue the tribes in the south of the Sudan
- The Sudanese did not agree with the implementation of a modern government, lad tenure rules and taxation
- Tribes refused to pay tax or renounce their customs, the British acted heavily
- 33 British punitive expeditions
- Mahdist uprisings in 1902-03, 1904, 1908
- Public hangings without trial for the rebels
- British increased economic development, telegraph poles and railway lines in the north of Sudan, Port Sudan opened in 1906, 1911 Gezira Scheme to provide high quality cotton for Britain


Causes of the Second Boer War?

- Cecil Rhodes became Prime Minister of the Cape in 1890 and heavily pushed for the collection of the Boer Republics into a South African Federation, in which the British and Cape would influence - stemmed from the Transvaal hurting his business with high tariffs and from his personal hatred of Paul Kruger
- Transvaal was strong since 1886 discovery of gold on the Rand and then it opened a rail network to Portuguese-controlled port of Lourenco Marques
- Chamberlian and Rhodes worried about Britain losing its dominance in the region
- They then supported the Jameson raid which failed in 1895
- Continuing clashes over the voting rights of Uitlanders
- Alfred Milner, South African High Commissioner from 1897, was very aggressive with Kruger and at the Bloemfontein Conference of May-June 1899 he demanded voting rights to the Uitlanders, Kruger refused
- In October 1899 Kruger issued an ultimatum which Milner refused and so the Boers attacked the Cape initiating war


Consequences of the Second Boer War?

- Kitchener started a 'scorched earth policy and burnt farms and livestock
- Boer families (mainly women and children) and black Africans were placed in concentration camps (20,000 died)
- Boers surrendered in May 1902
- War dragged on for over 2 and a half years
- Cost £230,000
- Involved 400,000 troops
- 22,000 British were killed
- 6000 Boer troops killed
- Showed the vulnerability of the British imperial control
- Had to call on troops from all over the Empire, mainly India, leaving other colonies badly defended
- Dampened jingoism and led to a need for national efficiency
- Treaty of Vereeniging May 1902 granted the Boers £3 million compensation for their farms
- Milner worked to integrate the Boer and British economies
- Transvaal given self-governing status in 1906
- Orange River Colony given self-governing status 1907
- Union of South Africa 1910, a British dominion