Flashcards in Attitudes to empire - the role and influence of individuals (22) Deck (12)
Key nationalist leader in the Malay Peninsula?
Onn bin Ja'afar
Founder of the United Malays National Organisation (UMNO)
Campaigned to rally agains the Malayan Union, established by the British in 1946 to unite British possessions (except Singapore)
Became UMNO's president in May 1946
Was able to force a British climb-down in favour of the 'Federation of Malay States' in 1948 - influenced his supporter Tunku Rahman who would become Malaya's first prime minister in 1957
Faced opposition from Tan Cheng Lock who led the Malaysian Chinese Association (MCA - 1949) who was anti-communist and supported by the British.
Nationalism brought the 'Malayan Emergency'. violent guerrilla war between 1949 and 1960 between British Commonwealth forces and the Malayan National Liberation Army (MNLA) - communist army
Tan and Onn came together to negotiate for British independence in 1957.
Nationalist leader in Gold Coast?
Radicalised by Western ideas at universities in the USA in the 1930s and 1940s
1945 went to London
Organised the fifth Pan-African Congress in Manchester
1947 international reputation
Invited to become General Secretary of the United Gold Coast Convention (UGGC) which had a goal for independence
Imprisoned in 1948 - grew his popularity and created the Convention's Peoples Party (CCP)
Prime Minister from 1953 to 1957
Moved Gold Coast to independent Ghana in 1957
Became a republic in 1960 and Nkrumah headed it as a dictator until a coup in 1966
Significance of Nkrumah?
Figurehead for African Nationalism
Built political philosophy with principles of:
Pan-Africanism - African people should work together for their collective common good - founded Organisation of African Unity in 1963
Marxist socialism - Argued that the British Empire was only for the benefit for international capitalists
Responsible leadership - Understood the importance of developing a working relationship with the British to gain their confidence and support
Nationalist leader in Nigeria?
Dr Nnamdi Azikiwe
Like Nkrumah enjoyed Western education in Africa and then in the USA where he was radicalised
Strong nationalist - helped create the National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons (NCNC) in 1944 and became its leader
Nigeria was starkly divided on religious and ethnic grounds
North was Muslim - Northern Peoples Congress
East lived in by Ibo - NCNC
West lived in by Yoruba - 'Yoruba Action Group'
Azikiwe was able to establish independence with a federal system and his bargaining was exceptional
Nationalist leader in Kenya?
After being educated by Scottish Missionaries he joined the Kikuyu Central Association (KCA) - to defend Kikuyu land holdings
Went to London in 1929 - became determined to fight for independence
1947 - head of president of the Kenya Africa Union (KAU)
KAU banned in 1952 as a state of emergency was declared after the Mau Mau rebellion in 1951.
Kenyatta was arrested in October 1952 as the leader of the Kikuyu
His defence lawyer said there was no evidence he was linked to the Kikuyu - still sentenced in 1953 to seven years imprisonment
Public meetings and petitions against this
He was elected the leader of the Kenya African National Union whilst still in prison in May 1960
State of Emergency lifted in 1960 and he was released in 1961
Kenya became independent in 1963 - served as Prime Minister but after 1964 he was the president of the Republic of Kenya
Significance of Kenyatta?
Brought about Africanisation of the government as leader
Failed to create a multi-ethnic state and it became Kikuyu dominated - all positions of power and wealth
Made Kenya a one-party-state in 1964
Amended the constitution in 1966 to expand his own powers
Nationalist leader in Uganda?
Apolo Milton Obote
Became politicised working as a construction worker in the 1950s.
Socialist political ideas
Returned to Uganda in 1956 and joined the Uganda National Congress.
In 1957 he was elected to the Colonial Legislative Council.
Appointed by the Governor-General, Sir Walter Coutts, as Prime Minister of an independent Uganda in 1962.
In 1963 the position of Governor-General was replaced by the ceremonial presidency of Mutesa, the King of Buganda, but Obote held the real power.
First African leader of an independent Uganda.
Ruled in an arbitrary way, using the Ugandan military to hold maintain and wield his power.
Purged government by forcing out all Kenyans in 1966 on accusations of gold smuggling and arrested and detained without charge many rivals in his cabinet.
Forced Mutesa into exile.
In 1967, parliament agreed upon a new constitution abolishing the federal structure, cementing his power.
An example of a nationalist leader who at one point had genuine commitment to his people’s freedom but was corrupted by power and brought about post-colonial violence
Wanted to end apartheid in South Africa which was formed in South Africa in 1948
Formed the African National Congress (ANC) in 1944
Supported radical mass-based policy - 'Programme of Action' 1949
1952 led the 'Defiance Campaign' of civil disobedience against unjust laws
ANC banned in 1960
Secretly joined the South African Communist Party - sat on its Central Committee
Co-founded the 'Spear of the Nation' a militant group used against the apartheid government
Returned to South Africa in July 1962 after a tour to gather support - promptly arrested
Five years imprisonment - during which a raid on the ANCs Rivonia hideout brought a further trail in 1963 - gave his famous speech in 1964 - 'I am prepared to die'
Served 27 years imprisonment
Sir Andrew Cohen
Attended a doubled first in Classics at Cambridge in 1931
Joined the Colonial Office, concentrated on African affairs
1947 appointed Assistant Under-Secretary of State for the Colonial Office's African division
Knew that decolonisation was inevitable, listened to nationalists and wanted devolve power to indigenous officials.
Cohen Report 1947 - new direction for colonial policy - gradual reform - nations emerge independent, democratic and stable
Worried about apartheid - proposed the creation Central African Federation (1953-63)
1952 - Governor of Uganda until 1957 - brought Africans into government - expanded the University of Makerere
Helped lay the groundwork for Uganda's independence in 1962
Most African governments progressed towards independence faster than Cohen had envisioned
Sir John Macpherson
Educated at Edinburgh University
Governor General of Nigeria from 1948 to 1955 - pushed reforms - opened higher levels of colonial office to Nigerians - major conference in 1951 to open discussions on a constitution
Federal 'Macpherson Constitution' of 1951 - failed to work effectively due to competing interests
Led to Colonial Secretary, Oliver Littleton to approve a new constitution allowing for greater regional autonomy in 1954
Macpherson managed to setup a stable country which became independent in 1960
Cohen and Buganda?
1953 to 1955 - major unrest as the British proposed an East African Federation - Bugandans thought their culture would be destroyed
The King, the Kabaka, called for seperation of Buganda from Uganda
Cohen, after some reassurances, deported the Kabak in 1953
Storm of protest
Cohen declared a state of emergency
1955 Buganda agreement - Kabaka restored - became influential in how Uganda would be governed and became the first President in 1962