Flashcards in Autoimmune Diseases Deck (53)
What might cause tissue damage in autoimmune diseases?
type ll (cytotoxic) and type lll (immune complex)
What can help diagnose autoimmune diseases?
identification of specific antibodies
What are the three basic requirements for pathologic autoimmunity?
2. primary pathogenic reaction
3. no other disease is present
autoimmune diseases might develop from abnormalities in what?
What environmental factors can lead to loss of tolerance?
viruses, hormones, or drugs
What does Graves disease affect?
antibodies to the TSH receptor act as agonists and elevate thryroid hormones
Anitgens can do what two things?
1. Alter function and 2. destroy self-tissues
What are 7 examples of autoimmune diseases?
1. antibodies and immune complexes (Graves)
2. systemic (systemic lupus erythematosus)
3. autoimmunity or reactions to microbes (polyarteritis nodosa)
4. T cells (organ specific like multiple sclerosis)
5. systemic AD's like rheumatoid arthritis
6. autoimune hemolytic anemia
What is systemic lupus erythematosus?
chronic, autoimmune, multisystem, inflammatory disease.
- more common in females
systemic lupus erythematosus can lead to what 5 things?
1. renal failure
2. butterfly rash
3. focal neurological deficits
5. pericarditis or endocarditise
Some manifestations of SLE result from what?
tissue injury due to immune complex mediated vasculitis
SLE affects how many americans?
around 250, 000
Presence of what is a characteristic feature of SLE?
SLE leads to...
Mesangial, focal, or diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis, or tubular and interstitial changes
What are the pathological characteristic lesions?
wire-loop lesion, hyaline thrombi, and fibrinioid degeneration
What is the clinical presentation of SLE?
- young female
- nonspecific fatigue
- weight changes
- butterfly rash, arhtritis, and vasculitis
What are the MSK symptoms of SLE?
- 90 % have polyarthralgia (joint pain)
Whats the most common organ affected by SLE?
noninfectious but may look similar to infectious endocartitis
most common variet
- skin involvement only
- no antinuclear antibodies
sub-acute cutaneous lupus
papular and annular lesions (trunk)
Procainamide, hydralazine, isoniazid
- no sex predisposition and most are over 50 yoa
female: male 4:1
destruction of articular cartilage
Etiology of Rheumatoid arthritis
Genetically predisposed person is exposed to virus or self-Ag which activated T cells specific for a joint antigen which secretes cytokines like TNF alpha
What is the pre-dominant cytokine found in Rheumatoid arthritis?
persistent tenosynovitis can lead to what?
synovial cysts and ruptured tendons
most common cardiovascular manifestation of RA?
artherosclerosis (leading cause of death in RA)
most common ocular manifestation?
keratoconjunctivitis of Sjogren's syndrome
can food affect RA?
yes, but not according to the Arthritis foundation
- saturated fats may increase inflammation