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Flashcards in Autoimmune Diseases Deck (53)
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1

What might cause tissue damage in autoimmune diseases?

type ll (cytotoxic) and type lll (immune complex)

2

What can help diagnose autoimmune diseases?

identification of specific antibodies

3

What are the three basic requirements for pathologic autoimmunity?

1. reaction
2. primary pathogenic reaction
3. no other disease is present

4

autoimmune diseases might develop from abnormalities in what?

T-lymphocyte system

5

What environmental factors can lead to loss of tolerance?

viruses, hormones, or drugs

6

What does Graves disease affect?

antibodies to the TSH receptor act as agonists and elevate thryroid hormones

7

Anitgens can do what two things?

1. Alter function and 2. destroy self-tissues

8

What are 7 examples of autoimmune diseases?

1. antibodies and immune complexes (Graves)
2. systemic (systemic lupus erythematosus)
3. autoimmunity or reactions to microbes (polyarteritis nodosa)
4. T cells (organ specific like multiple sclerosis)
5. systemic AD's like rheumatoid arthritis
6. autoimune hemolytic anemia

9

What is systemic lupus erythematosus?

chronic, autoimmune, multisystem, inflammatory disease.
- more common in females

10

systemic lupus erythematosus can lead to what 5 things?

1. renal failure
2. butterfly rash
3. focal neurological deficits
4. arthritis
5. pericarditis or endocarditise

11

Some manifestations of SLE result from what?

tissue injury due to immune complex mediated vasculitis

12

SLE affects how many americans?

around 250, 000

13

Presence of what is a characteristic feature of SLE?

LE bodies

14

SLE leads to...

Mesangial, focal, or diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis, or tubular and interstitial changes

15

What are the pathological characteristic lesions?

wire-loop lesion, hyaline thrombi, and fibrinioid degeneration

16

What is the clinical presentation of SLE?

- young female
- nonspecific fatigue
- fever
- arthralgia
- weight changes
- butterfly rash, arhtritis, and vasculitis

17

What are the MSK symptoms of SLE?

- 90 % have polyarthralgia (joint pain)

18

Whats the most common organ affected by SLE?

kidney

19

Libman-Sacks endocarditis

noninfectious but may look similar to infectious endocartitis

20

Discoid lupus

most common variet
- skin involvement only
- no antinuclear antibodies

21

sub-acute cutaneous lupus

papular and annular lesions (trunk)

22

Drug-induced lupus

Procainamide, hydralazine, isoniazid
- no sex predisposition and most are over 50 yoa

23

Rheumatoid arthritis

female: male 4:1
destruction of articular cartilage

24

Etiology of Rheumatoid arthritis

Genetically predisposed person is exposed to virus or self-Ag which activated T cells specific for a joint antigen which secretes cytokines like TNF alpha

25

What is the pre-dominant cytokine found in Rheumatoid arthritis?

TNF alpha

26

persistent tenosynovitis can lead to what?

synovial cysts and ruptured tendons

27

most common cardiovascular manifestation of RA?

artherosclerosis (leading cause of death in RA)

28

most common ocular manifestation?

keratoconjunctivitis of Sjogren's syndrome

29

can food affect RA?

yes, but not according to the Arthritis foundation
- saturated fats may increase inflammation

30

Goodpastures syndrome (Anti-globmerluar basement membrane disease)

- attacks lungs and kidneys
- more renal and pulmonary disease
- some just kidneys