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Flashcards in Bacteriology Deck (355):
1

Last step in bacterial CW synthesis

Cross-linking

2

Fixes primary stain

Mordant

3

Mordant in Gram staining

Gram iodine

4

Decolorizer in Gram stain

Acetone alcohol

5

Identification of Chlamydia in low-resource area

Giemsa

6

Special stain: Legionella

Dierle (silver stain)

7

G- cocci

Neisseria
Branhamella/ Moraxella
Veillonella

8

Microorg: Wright stain

Borrelia

9

Special stains: P. carinii

Silver stain
Gomori methenamine stain

10

Microorg: Calcoflour white

Fungi

11

Cold method of staining acid fast microorgs

Kinyoun

12

Bacterial organelle responsible for encoding genes that regulate non essential life functions

Plasmid

13

Bacterial organelle responsible for encoding bacterial resistance

Plasmid

14

Pseudocapsule

P. aeruginosa

15

MCC of overwhelming postsplenectomy infection

S. pneumoniae

16

Dse conditions that makes host most susceptible to encapsulated microbe infections

Postsplenectomy
Sickle cell anemia

17

Biofilm on catheter-related infections

S. epidermidis

18

Biofilm in dental plaque/ dental caries

S. mutans

19

Metachromatic staining

Corynebacterium, due to Babes Ernst granules

20

Kidney-shaped diplococci

Neisseria

21

Lancet-shaped diplococci

S. pneumoniae

22

Bipolar staining

Yersinia

23

Gull-wing

Campylobacter

24

Post C. jejuni conditions

GBS
Reactive arthritis/Reiter syndrome

25

Inactivating EF2 (elongation factor 2)

1) A-B toxin of C. diphtheriae
2) Exotoxin A of P. aeruginosa

26

Exotoxin vs endotoxin: Meningococcemia

Endotoxin

27

A-B toxin causing ADP ribosylation of G protein

V. cholerae

28

Pea soup diarrhea

Salmonella typhi (???V. cholera)

29

HUS: Toxins

Shiga toxin
Shiga-like toxin

30

HUS: Microorg

Shigella
EHEC

31

Dse: A-B toxin that inhibits G-alpha

Whooping cough

32

Use inorganic cmpds

Autotrophs

33

Use organic compounds as energy source

Heterotrophs

34

Best grow at 0-20C

Psychrophile

35

Best grow at 20-40C

Mesophile

36

Best grow at 40-80C

Thermophile

37

Bacterial growth curve, phase: Metabolic activity

Lag

38

Bacterial growth curve, phase: Rapid cell division

Log

39

Bacterial growth curve, phase: Nutrient depletion

Stationary

40

Destroys all life forms

Sterilization

41

Destroys disease-causing orgs; not all lifeforms

Disinfection

42

Postulate: Microorganism must be isolated and grown in pure culture; must cause dse in healthy indiv; must be reisolated and identified

Koch's postulate

43

Standard for new chemical antimicrobials

Phenol

44

Autoclave conditions to kill spores

121C at 15 psi for 15-20 mins

45

Rapid freezeing or freeze-drying

Lyophilization

46

Used to preserve cultures

Lyophilization

47

Sporicidal chemical agent

Halogen

48

Most effective skin antiseptic

Iodine
Ethylene oxide

49

Used for cold sterilization

Ethylene oxide

50

Neisseria culture medium: From sterile site

CAP

51

Neisseria culture medium: From unsterile site

Thayer Martin

52

Satellite phenomenon on culture

H. influenzae

53

Charcoal in culture medium

Bordetella
Legionella

54

Mercury drop colonies on charcoal medium

Bordetella pertussis

55

Eaton agent

Mycoplasma

56

Egg yolk agar

C. perfringens

57

BSK medium

Borrelia

58

Staib's medium

C. neoformans (Bird seed agar)

59

Bird see agar

C. neoformans (Staib's medium)

60

Bile esculin agar

Group D enterococcus

61

Castaneda medium

Brucella

62

Skirrow's agar

C. jejuni
H. pylori

63

TCBS

V. cholerae

64

EMJH

L. interrogans

65

AIDS, MC bacterial infection

M. avium intracellulare

66

AIDS, MC fungal infection

P. carinii

67

AIDS, MC protozoal infection

T. gondii
Cryptosporidium

68

AIDS, MC viral infection

CMV

69

AIDS, benign viral infection

Molluscum contagiosum (poxvirus)

70

Lumpy jaw

A. israelii

71

Golden yellow colonies of S. aureus is due to

Staphyloxanthin

72

Normal flora of skin

S. epidermidis
S. aureus

73

Normal flora of nasopharynx

S. aureus

74

Normal flora of mouth and throat

S. viridans
Actinomyces

75

Normal flora of colon

B. fragilis > E. coli; enterococci

76

Normal flora of vagina

L. acidophilus
GBS
E. coli

77

Normal flora in gallbladder

Salmonella typhi

78

Pneumonia in alcoholics

S. pneumoniae

79

Pneumonia in neonates

GBS
E. coli
Listeria

80

Pneumonia in 1mo-3mos

RSV

81

Pneumonia in young adults

Mycoplasma

82

Lobar pneumonia

S. pneumoniae

83

Pneumonia in neutropenic patients

P. aeruginosa

84

Pneumonia in AIDS

P. jiroveci/carinii

85

Pneumonia in barracks

Mycoplasma

86

Atypical pneumonia

Mycoplasma

87

Pneumonia in cystic fibrosis

Pseudomonas

88

Pneumonia in diabetics

Pseudomonas

89

Pneumonia in CGD

Pseudomonas

90

Pneumonia in poorly nourished, unvaccinated child

Measles

91

Giant cell pneumonia

Measles

92

Mech vent assoc pneumonia

Pseudomonas

93

Hospital-acquired pneumonia

Pseudomonas

94

All capsular bacteria have polysaccharide capsule except

B. anthracis

95

All viruses are haploid except

Retroviridae

96

Raw eggs

Salmonella

97

Reheated meat

C. perfringens

98

Mayonnaise

S. aureus

99

Hamburger

EHEC

100

Custard

S. aureus

101

Apple juice

EHEC

102

Alfalfa sprouts and spinach

EHEC

103

Bilateral eyelid swelling/periorbital edema

Trichinella spiralis

104

Sty

S. aureus

105

Sticky eye

Propionibacterium

106

MCC of blindness worldwide

Chlamydia

107

Chorioretinitis

CMV
Toxoplasma

108

Congenital retinopathy

Treponema

109

Pebbly conjunctivitis

Chlamydia

110

Corneal scarring

Chlamydia

111

Congenital cataract

Rubella

112

Meningitis in neonates

GBS
E. coli
Listeria

113

Meningitis in 2-6 mos, unimmunized

H. influenzae

114

Meningitis in adults

S. pneumoniae

115

Meningitis outbreaks in crowded conditions

N. meningitidis

116

Meningitis in adolescents and young adults

N. meningitidis

117

Meningitis in barracks and college dorms

N. meningitidis

118

Meningitis in AIDS

Cryptococcus

119

Toxin responsible for pneumatocele formation by S. aureus

Panton valentin leukocidin

120

Toxin: SSSS

Exfoliatin

121

Most severe form of SSSS

Ritter disease

122

Acute mastitis

S. aureus

123

Infective endocarditis in IV drug users

S. aureus

124

MC valve involved in infective endocarditis in IV drug users

Tricuspid

125

MCC of osteomyelitis in the general population

S. aureus

126

Meningitis in 2-6 mos, immunized

S. pneumoniae

127

Peritonitis in renal failure patients

S. epidermidis

128

MCC of subacute endocarditis

S. viridans

129

MCC of acute endocarditis

S. aureus

130

MCC of endocarditis in patients with prosthetic heart valves

S. epidermidis

131

MCC of osteomyelitis in sexually active individuals

N. gonorrheae

132

MCC of osteomyelitis in IV drug abusers

P. aeruginosa

133

S. aureus virulence factor: Food poisoning

Enterotoxin A

134

S. aureus virulence factor: Infective endocarditis

Fibrin-platelet mesh

135

S. aureus virulence factor: Impetigo

Coagulase
Staphylokinase

136

Impetigo

S. aureus
GABHS

137

Septic arthritis in prosthetic joints

S. epidermidis

138

Strep antigen: Rheumatic fever

M protein

139

Strep strain responsible for PSGN

M12

140

S. pyogenes toxin: Hemolysis

Streptolysin S

141

MCC of impetigo

S. aureus

142

MCC of bullous impetigo (80%)

S. aureus

143

MCC of nonbullous impetigo

S. aureus

144

Specific S. aureus that almost exclusively causes bullous impetigo

Phage type 71

145

Boiled lobster appearance

Scarlet fever

146

Scarlet fever

S. pyogenes

147

MCC of necrotising fasciitis

Group A strep

148

(+) Quellung reaction

s. pneumoniae

149

MCC of paediatric otitis media

S. pneumoniae

150

Enterococcus requirement

6.5% NaCl at 45C

151

Infective endocarditis in elderly with previously damaged valves secondary to GU or GI surgery

Enterocci

152

Club-shaped

C. dphtheriae

153

Safety pin appearance

Y. pestis

154

DOC for tularemia

Streptomycin

155

Genital infection: Buboes

Lymphogranuloma venereum (C. trachomatis L1-3)
Chancroid (H. ducreyi)

156

Chinese character appearance microscopically

C. diphtheriae

157

Swarming motility

Proteus

158

Medusa head colonies

B. anthracis

159

Exhibits lysogeny due to B prophage

C. diphtheriae

160

Babes Ernst granules

C. diptheriae

161

Intracutaneous test to determine susceptibility of C. diphtheriae

Schick test

162

Immunodiffusion technique to determine toxigenicity of C. diphtheriae

Elek test

163

Drumstick/tennis racket

C. tetani

164

M. tb: Caseous necrosis

Sulfatides

165

M. tb: Virulence

Cord factor

166

M. tb: Most hepatotoxic drug

Pyrazinamide

167

Spores very resistant to heat and usual antiseptics

C. tetani

168

T/F Tetanolysin of C. tetani has no recognised pathogenic activity

T

169

Generalized tetanus

Opisthotonus

170

Earliest manifestation of neonatal tetanus

Poor suck

171

Earliest manifestation of adult tetanus

Trismus

172

MOA of tetanospasmin in CNS

Inhibits release of inhibitory neurotransmitters glycine and GABA

173

Amt PPD injected intradermally in Mantoux test

0.1 mL

174

When to read Mantoux test result

After 48-72 hours

175

Obligate intracellular bacteria with the longest doubling time

M. leprae

176

Antimycobacterial that can be used for both M. leprae and M. tb

Rifampin

177

Tuberculoid vs lepromatous: Lepromin test (+)

Tuberculoid

178

Tuberculoid vs lepromatous: High number of organisms in tissue

Tuberculoid

179

Tuberculoid vs lepromatous: Cell-mediated immunity causes cell damage

Tuberculoid

180

Tuberculoid vs lepromatous: Large number of intracellular organisms cause cell damage

Lepromatous

181

Tuberculoid vs lepromatous: Nerve enlargement and paresthesias

Tuberculoid

182

Tuberculoid vs lepromatous: Madarosis

Lepromatous

183

Tuberculoid vs lepromatous: Loss of nasal septum

Lepromatous

184

Aquarium or fish pond worker

M. marinum

185

MOTT: Cervical lymphadenitis in children

M. scrofulaceum

186

MOTT: Fast-grower

M. fortuitum

187

Listeria motility in cells

Actin motility

188

Zipper mechanism

Listeria, mode of entry, direct cell to cell spread via actin-based movement

189

B. anthracis toxin that mediates entry

Anthrax toxin

190

3 diseases caused by anthrax

1) Woolsorter disease
2) Cutaneous anthrax
3) GI anthrax

191

Food held warm

B. cereus

192

Types of B. cereus food poisoning

1) Emetic
2) Diarrheal

193

DOC for C. tetani

Metronidazole

194

Inhibits Ach release at NMJ

Botulinum toxin, C. botulinum

195

Malignant pustule

Cutaneous anthrax

196

Painless ulcers

1) Chancre
2) Cutaneous anthrax

197

Shock and mediastinal hemorrhagic lymphadenitis

Pulmonary anthrax

198

Sauces

B. cereus

199

Chinatown >> vomiting

B. cereus

200

Canned food

C. botulinum

201

Stormy fermentation in lactose milk media

C. perfringens

202

Honey

C. botulinum

203

Smoked food

C. botulinum

204

Gas gangrene

C. perfringes

205

Long-term parenteral antibiotics

C. difficile

206

MCC of antibiotic assoc diarrhea

C. difficile

207

House dust

C. botulinum

208

Death march of Bataan

C. perfringens (gas gangrene)

209

Double zone of hemolysis

C. perfringens

210

Pig feces

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae

211

Rat bite fever

Streptobacillus moniliformis

212

Hyperbaric oxygen

C. perfringens

213

Haverhill fever

Streptobacillus moniliformis

214

Alpha lecithinase

C. perfringens

215

Fever, inward rash, tick bite

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

216

Hard purplish swelling on hand with no pus

Erysipeloid

217

Weil Felix Test

Rickettsia

218

Lonestar tick

Erlichia chaffensis (erlichiosis)

219

3 phyla of Rickettsia

Rickettsia
Erlichia
Coxiella

220

T/F All rickettsia are transmitted by arthropods

F, Coxiella (Q fever) is transmitted via fomites and not arthropods

221

Fatal rickettsial infection

Epidemic typhus

222

Eschar is a punched out ulcer covered with a blackened scab that indicates location of mite bite

Scrub typhus (R. tsutsugamushi)

223

Treatment for rickettsia

Doxycycline

224

Rickettsia with endospores

Coxiella

225

Only rickettsial disease without rash

Coxiella

226

Mulberry-like structure in affected cells (morula)

Ehrlichia

227

Chlamydia lacks ___ in cell wall

Muramic acid

228

Chlamydia serovar: Trachoma

A-C

229

Chlamydia serovar: PID

D-K

230

Smallest free-living bacteria with no cell wall

M. pneumoniae

231

Calymmatobacterium granulomatis

Granuloma inguinale

232

DOC for nocardia

TMP-SMX

233

Madura foot

Actinomycetoma

234

Only bacteria with cholesterol in cell membrane

Mycoplasma

235

Toll like receptor 2 protein

Mycoplasma

236

Predominant sexually transmitted organism associated with PID

Chlamydia trachomatis

237

Intraabdominal spread of PID; Violin string

Fitz Hugh Curtis syndrome

238

Fried egg appearance of colonies

Mycoplasma

239

Pneumonia with cold agglutinins

Mycoplasma

240

Responsible for anemia in mycoplasma infection

Cold agglutinins

241

Parrots/birds

Psitaccosis (C. psitacci)

242

Currant jelly sputum

Klebsiella pneumonia

243

Beaded filamentous bacteria

Nocardia

244

Rib destruction; filamentous bacteria

Actinomyces

245

Friedlander's bacillus

Klebsiella

246

Vi capsular antigen

S. typhi

247

Necrotizing fasciitis from saltwater

V. vulnificus

248

Possesses a capsule that is lost with passage in the lab, accompanied by loss of virulence

Yersinia pestis

249

Best specimen to culture for typhoid fever

Bone marrow

250

Detection of typhoid fever

Week 1: Blood
Week 2: Urine
Week 3: Stool

251

When are rose spots seen in typhoid fever

Week 1

252

DOC for S. typhi in adults

Ceftriaxone

253

DOC for S. typhi in children

Chloramphenicol

254

Salmonella enteritidis

S. enterocolitis

255

Osteomyelitis and sepsis in sickle cell disease

Salmonella cholerasuis

256

Hyperplasia of Peyer's patches

Typhoid ileitis

257

Puppy feces

Yersinia enterocolitica

258

Peritrichous flagella

Proteus
E. coli
S. typhi

259

1 flagella

Monotrichous

260

Multiple flagella in the same area

Lophotrichous (e.g. Spirilla)

261

2 flagella, 1 each on opposite ends

Amphitrichous (e.g. Alcaligenes)

262

Multiple flagella pointing in many directions/located at many spots on the cell

Peritrichous

263

Monotrichous, example

Vibrio

264

Proteus vulgaris vs mirabilis

Indole (+) - vulgaris

265

Darting motility

Campylobacter
Vibrio

266

Bacillary dysentery

Shigella sonnei

267

Most severe bacillary dysentery

Shigella dysenteriae type A

268

MCC of epidemic dysentery

Shigella dysenteriae type A

269

Mainstay of treatment for cholera

Fluids and electrolytes

270

Drugs to reduce carrier stage of V. cholera

Doxycycline
Cirpofloxacin

271

Minimum inoculum for cholera

10^7

272

The dominant vibrio strain in the seventh global pandemic.

O1 El tor

273

Vibrio O1 El Tor is distinguished from classic biotypes by the production of

Hemolysin

274

2 subunits of choleragen

A: Activates Adenylate cyclase
B: Binding

275

MCC of death of cholera

Dehydration

276

DOC for cholera

Doxycycline (longer t/2)
Tetracycline

277

MCC of acute bacterial gastroenteritis

C. jejuni

278

Primarily an opportunistic pathogen that causes infection in hospitalized patients

Pseudomonas

279

Loss of skin elasticity (washer woman hands sign)

Cholera

280

Neutrophil count that predisposes to pseudomonas infection

Less than 500/uL

281

Bacteria from contaminated soil

Burkholderia

282

Previously known as Campylobacter

H. pylori

283

Melioidosis

Burkholderia pseudomallei

284

Bacteria classified as Type I carcinogen by WHO

H. pylori

285

Cancers caused by H. pylori

Gastric
MALT lymphoma

286

Glander disease

Burkholderia mallei

287

MCC of G- nosocomial pneumonia

Pseudomonas

288

Characteristic smell of pseudomonas infection

Grape-like or fruity odor

289

Pseudomonas toxin resp for sepsis and shock

Endotoxin

290

Pseudomonas toxin resp for tissue necrosis

Exotoxin A

291

Shooting star motility

Vibrio

292

pH at which Vibrio grows best

Alkaline

293

Bacillary angiomatosis

Bartonella henselae and quintana

294

De Musset's sign

Aortic regurgitation seen in syphilis

295

Syphilitic aortitis affects what specific vascular structure

Vasa vasorum

296

Ecthyma gangrenosum

Pseudomonas

297

Signs of congenital syphilis

Frontal bossing
Snuffles/rhinitis
Mulberry molars
Hutchinson teeth
Higoumenaki sign (unilateral enlargement of clavicle)

298

Portion of spinal cord affected in tertiary syphilis

Posterior columns (tabes dorsalis); loss of position and vibration sense

299

Bejel

T. pallidum endemicum

300

Swimmer's ear

Pseudomonas

301

Sinus of valsalva aneurysm

Syphilis

302

Yaws

T. pallidum pertenue

303

Malignant diffuse otitis externa

Pseudomonas

304

DOC for Pseudomonas

Ceftazidime

305

Condyloma lata

Secondary syphilis

306

Pinta

T. pallidum carateum

307

Non-sexually transmitted forms of treponema infections

Pinta
Yaws
Bejel

308

Cystic medionecrosis of aorta

Marfan syndrome

309

White footed mouse and deer

Borrelia burgdorferi

310

Lesion of borrelia

Target lesion

311

Severe form of leptospirosis

Weil disease

312

Endarteritis obliterans

Syphilis

313

MC STD

Chlamydia

314

Rabbits

Francisella

315

Chlamydia strain that causes acute respiratory syndrome/pneumonia

TWAR strain

316

Erythema chronic migrans

Borrelia

317

Visceral larva migrans

Toxocara canis

318

Cutaneous larva migrans

Ancylostoma brasiliense

319

Red orange jaundice

Weil disease

320

Gold standard for diagnosis of leptospirosis

Culture

321

DOC for Weil disease

Pen G

322

DOC for short-term exposure and prophylaxis for leptospirosis

Doxycycline

323

Incubation period of leptospirosis

2-20 days

324

Most common zoonosis

Leptospira

325

MCC of death in leptospirosis

ARF

326

Pontiac fever

Legionella

327

Malta fever

Brucella

328

Brucella: Commonest cause of symptomatic disease in humans

melitensis

329

Key target cell of Brucella

Macrophage

330

DOC for brucellosis

IM Streptomycin

331

Mousy door of colony

Pasteurella multocida

332

Trench fever

Bartonella quintana

333

Bartonella quintana, vector

Body louse

334

Oroya fever

Bartonella bacilliformis

335

Warthin-Starry silver impregnation stain

B. henselae

336

Whooping cough

Bordetella pertussis

337

Stages of whooping cough

1) Catarrhal 1-2 weeks
2) Paroxysmal 2-4 weeks
3) Convalescence > 4 weeks

338

Most contagious stage of whooping cough

Catarrhal

339

T/F Nocardia infection is predominantly encountered in immunocompromised individuals

T

340

Fishy odor

Gardnerella vaginalis

341

Chancroid

H. ducreyi

342

Cherry red diaper syndrome

Serratia

343

Chronic lobar pneumonia

Nocardia

344

Associated with Mobiluncus infection (anaerobe)

Gardnerella vaginalis

345

School of fish distribution

H. ducreyi

346

E. coi antigen responsible for causing meningitis

K1

347

Inhibitor of other bacteria in Lowenstein Jensen

Malachite green

348

How long does it take for a positive LJ culture

As early as 3-6 weeks

349

PFEIFFER'S BACILLUS

H. influenzae

350

MCC of tracheitis

S. aureus

351

Montezuma's revenge

ETEC (Traveler's diarrhea)

352

MC organism in acute appendicitis

E. coli

353

Fecal index of contamination

E. coli

354

DOC for diphtheria

Penicillin

355

DOC for T. gondii

Pyrimethamine