Basic Pathology Flashcards Preview

CDB PEARLS > Basic Pathology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Basic Pathology Deck (207):
1

Physiologic vs pathologic hypertrophy: Athlete's heart

Physiologic

2

Physiologic vs pathologic hypertrophy: Pregnant uterus

Physiologic hypertrophy after an initial physiologic hyperplasia

3

2 mechanisms of atrophy resulting in a decrease in size of cells

1) Ubiquitin-proteasome degradation
2) Autophagy

4

Mechanism of atrophy resulting in a decrease in number of cells

Apoptosis

5

Normal left ventricular thickness

1.5 cm

6

Normal right ventricular thickness

0.5 cm

7

Mechanism of metaplasia

Reprogramming of stem cells

8

Epithelial vs mesenchymal: Type of tissue most commonly affected by metaplasia

Epithelial

9

Most common type of metaplasia

Squamous metaplasia

10

Type of metaplasia seen in the cervix

Glandular/columnar metaplasia

11

Mesenchymal metaplasia characterised by heterotropic ossification usually within large muscles

Myositis ossificans

12

Cellular adaptation that takes place in the specialized conjunctival epithelium in vitamin A deficiency

Keratomalacia (metaplasia)

13

Symptom experienced by patients with keratomalacia

Night blindness

14

Vitamin A is essential in the maturation of the immune system hence it (ATRA) is used in the treatment of

Acute promyelocytic leukemia

15

T/F Metaplasia is premalignant

F

16

T/F Dysplasia is premalignant

T

17

Ischemia can cause permanent damage to the brain if not reversed within

3-5 minutes

18

T/F Hyperplasia can progress to dyplasia and CA

T

19

Example of hyperplastic condition that may progress to CA

Endometrial hyperplasia

20

Pathologic hypertrophy vs hyperplasia: BPH

Hyperplasia

21

T/F BPH is premalignant

F

22

Type of hyperplasia in the endometrium that may progress to carcinoma

Complex hyperplasia

23

Most common cause of cellular injury

Hypoxia

24

Final electron acceptor in the ETC

O2

25

Substance that has 100x more affinity to hgb than O2

CO

26

Appearance of skin with CO poisoning

Cherry red

27

First symptom of CO poisoning

Headache

28

Most common cause of hypoxia

Ischemia

29

Most common cause of Budd-Chiari syndrome (renal vein thrombosis)

Polycythemia

30

Spectrum of morphologic changes that follow cell death in living tissue

Necrosis

31

Type of necrosis seen in arteries and autoimmune diseases

Fibrinoid necrosis

32

Cellular change responsible for shedding of endometrium in menstrual cycle

Apoptosis

33

Literal meaning of apoptosis

Falling of leaves

34

Type of cell death responsible for spaces between fingers in embryologic development

Apoptosis

35

T/F Necrosis is always pathologic

T

36

Substance that initiates cell death

Caspases

37

CD of fas receptor

CD95

38

Where in the mitochondria is cytochrome c located

IMM

39

Pro-apoptotic factors

1) Bax
2) Caspase 3
3) p53

40

Antiapoptotic factors

Bcl-2

41

Most common form of lipid deposited in fatty change

TAG

42

Most common cause of fatty change in adults

Alcohol

43

Abnormal protein deposited in multiple myeloma

Russel bodies

44

Pink, eosinophilic inclusions in plasma cells in patients with multiple myeloma

Russel bodies

45

Glycogen storage diseases

Very Poor CArbohydrate Metabolism
I - von Gierke's
II - Pompe's
III - Cori's
IV - Andersen
V - McArdle

46

Morphologic hallmark of cell death

Loss of nucleus

47

Coagulative necrosis is usually due to

Ischemia

48

Type of infarction seen with arterial occlusion

Pale/white infarction

49

Type of infarction seen with venous occlusion

Red infarction

50

White vs red infarction: Renal

White

51

White vs red infarction: Testicular

Red

52

Type of necrosis seen in the pancreas

Liquefactive

53

Type of necrosis seen in uterus of pregnant women with preeclampsia

Fibrinoid necrosis

54

Type of necrosis seen in malignant hypertension

Fibrinoid necrosis

55

Enzyme deficient in Gaucher's disease

Glucocerebrosidase

56

Enzyme deficient in Tay-Sach's disease

Hexosaminidase A

57

Enzyme deficient in Nieman-Pick's disease

Sphingomyelinase

58

Disease in which microscopically, the nucleus is pushed to the periphery and the cytoplasm looks like crumpled tissue paper

Gaucher's disease

59

Most common endogenous pigment

Lipofuscin

60

Substance accumulation in which DM may arise and called bronze DM

Hemochromatosis

61

Malarial pigment

Hematin/hemozoin

62

Malarial pigment: (+) vs (-) Prussian blue

Negative

63

Pigment: P. falciparum

Maurer's dots

64

Pigment: P. malariae

Zieman's dots

65

Pigment: P. ovale

James dots

66

Pigment: P. vivax

Schuffner's dots

67

Copper storage is seen in what disease

Wilson's disease or hepatolenticular degeneration

68

Enzyme increased in alcohol poisoning resulting in fatty liver due to esterification of FA to TAG

Alpha glycerophosphate

69

Formed when tyrosine oxidase catalyses the oxidation of tyrosine to dihydroxyphenylalanine

Melanin storage

70

Disease in which there is a lack of homogentisic dioxygenase leading to accumulation of homogentisic acid causing urine to turn black upon exposure to air

Alkaptonuria

71

Close differential for melanin storage being similar in having brown-black pigment (seen in alkaptonuria)

Onchronosis

72

Calcium deposits seen in non-viable or dying tissue

Psamomma bodies or asbestos bodies

73

Diseases in which psamomma bodies are seen

PSMM
1) Papillary thyroid CA
2) Serous ovarian CA
3) Meningioma
4) Mesothelioma

74

Dystrophic vs metastatic calcification: Causes organ dysfunction

Dystrophic

75

Any change within or outside cell which gives a homogenous, glassy, pink appearance on routine H and E

Hyaline change

76

Hyaline change that gives (+) Congo Red stain

Amyloid

77

Appearance of (+) Congo Red stain

(+) birefringence (green) on polarised microscope

78

Hallmark of early hemodynamic change

Increased blood flow

79

Hallmark of acute inflammation

Increased vascular permeability and edema

80

P-selectin is derived from

Weibel-Palade bodies

81

Normal fluid exchange and microvascular permeability are dependent on

An intact endothelium

82

Refers to transport of fluid through endothelial cells by channels of interconnected, uncoated vesicles and vacuoles (vesiculovacuolar organelles)

Transcytosis

83

Why is there LEAKAGE from regenerating capillaries?

Proliferating endothelial cells are leaky

84

Hydrothorax is defined as

Any amount >15mL in the thoracic space

85

Blood vessels involved in active congestion

Arterioles

86

Blood vessels involved in passive congestion

Veins

87

Zone of the liver most susceptible to toxin

Zone 1

88

Autosomal recessive defect of integrins

Leukocyte adhesion defect 1

89

CD mutated in leukocyte adhesion defect 1

b chain of CD11/CD18 integrins

90

Substances that up regulate integrins

1) LTC4
2) C5a

91

Preformed mediators of inflammation found in secretory granules of leukocytes

1) Histamine
2) Serotonin
3) Lysosomal enzymes

92

Cellular source of histamine in inflammation

Mast cells

93

Cellular source of serotonin in inflammation

Platelets

94

Cellular source of lysosomal enzymes in inflammation

Neutrophils

95

Defective leukocyte adhesion due to mutations in fucosyl transferase

Leukocyte adhesion defect 2

96

Genetic defect wherein there is decreased oxidative burst

CGD

97

Most common infections encountered in CGD

Catalase (+) organisms

98

Catalase (+) organisms

1) S. aureus
2) Pseudomonas cepacia

99

Enzyme defect in CGD

NADPH oxidase

100

Test for CGD

Nitroblue tetrazolium test

101

Nitroblue tetrazolium test result in CGD

Normal

102

DDx for CGD

Myeloperoxidase deficiency

103

Decreased leukocyte functions because of mutations affecting protein involved in lysosomal membrane trafficking

Chediak-Hegashi syndrome

104

Most common infections encountered in Chediak-Higashi syndrome

Pyogenic infections

105

Components of Chediak-Higashi syndrome

1) Giant platelets
2) Albinism
3) Microtubule system defect

106

Source of secretions in inflammation

Endothelial cells

107

3 major opsonins

1) Fc fragment of IgG
2) C3b
3) Plasma lectins (MBL in 3rd pathway of c' activation)

108

Auer rods are seen in WBCs of patients with

AML

109

Stage of WBC development where azurophilic granules are seen

Promyelocyte

110

Stage of WBC development where specific granules are seen

Myelocyte

111

Last stage of WBC development that is capable of cell division

Myelocyte

112

WBC granules: AKA primary granules

Azurophilic granules

113

WBC granules: AKA secondary granules

Specific granules

114

WBC granules: AKA tertiary granules

Gelatinase granules

115

Primary vs secondary granules: MPO

Primary

116

Primary vs secondary granules: Collagenase

Secondary

117

Primary vs secondary granules: Lysozyme

Primary, secondary, and tertiary

118

Primary vs secondary granules: Elastase

Primary

119

Primary vs secondary granules: Lactoferin

Secondary

120

Half-life of neutrophils in circulation

4-6h

121

Half-life of neutrophils in tissue

1-2 days

122

Characteristic substance present in eosinophilic granules that are very toxic to parasites

MBP

123

Tissue basophils

Mast cells

124

Characteristic substance present in basophilic granules

Histamine

125

CD marker for macrophages/monocytes

CD68

126

2 mechanisms of destruction of phagocytosed material

1) O2-dependent
2) O2-independent

127

Most effective mechanism of destruction of phagocytosed material

O2-dependent

128

O2-dependent destruction of phagocytosed material is aka

Oxidative burst

129

WBCs that exhibit O2-independent killing of phagocytosed material

Macrophages/monocytes

130

Macrophage in skin and mucosa

Langerhans cells

131

Macrophage in placenta

Hoffbauer cell

132

Another name for tissue macrophages

Histiocytes

133

Half-life of monocytes in circulation

24-72 hrs

134

WBC: Source of multinucleate giant cells

Monocyte

135

WBC: Source of epitheloid cells

Monocyte

136

Population: T lymphocytes vs B lymphocytes

T

137

Secretions in serous inflammation is derived from

Mesothelial cells

138

Patterns of acute inflammation: Skin blister

Serous

139

Patterns of acute inflammation: Abscess

Suppurative

140

Patterns of acute inflammation: Bread and butter pericarditis

Fibrinous

141

Patterns of acute inflammation: Diphtheria infection

Membranous

142

Patterns of acute inflammation: Clostridium difficult infection

Membranous

143

Lipoxins: Stimulate vs inhibit chemotaxis

Inhibit

144

Proteins produced by inflammatory cells that play a role in inflammation

Cytokines

145

Small proteins that attract PMNs

Chemokines

146

Macrophages: Lymph nodes

Sinus histiocytes

147

Macrophages: Lungs

Dust cells

148

Macrophages: Connective tissue

Histiocytes

149

Macrophages: CNS

Microglial cells

150

Macrophages: Kidney

Intraglomerular mesangial cell

151

Macrophages: Bone

Osteoclast

152

Macrophages: Granuloma

Epitheloid histiocytes

153

Cellular sources of serotonin (2)

1) Platelets
2) Enterochromaffin cells

154

Vasoconstrictor and platelet activator in COX pathway

TXA2

155

PG mediator of pain and fever

PGE2

156

PG that decreases platelet aggregation

PGI2

157

Key component of kinin system

Bradykinin

158

Brought about by intensive deposition of collagen

Fibrosis

159

Vitamin required for hydroxylation of procollagen

Vitamin C

160

T/F Granuloma always has central necrosis

F

161

Proliferation of cells and tissues to replace lost structures

Regeneration

162

Process of tissue necrosis resulting from interference of blood supply

Infarction

163

Type of infarction that is sterile

Bland infarction

164

Caused by air embolism in chronic decompression sickness

Caisson disease

165

Embolus from venous to arterial circulation

Paradoxical embolus

166

Steps in primary hemostasis

1) Adhesion
2) Activation
3) Aggregation

167

Steps in secondary hemostasis

1) Thrombin formation
2) Stable fibrin clot formation

168

Virchow's triad

1) Stasis
2) Hypercoagulability
3) Blood vessel injury

169

Endotoxic shock: G+ vs G-

G-

170

AKA endotoxin

Bacterial wall LPS

171

A genetic locus on chromosome 6 that encodes for cell surface compatibility

MHC

172

MHC I vs MHC II: HLA A, B, C

MHC I

173

MHC I vs MHC II: Present in all nucleated cells and platelets

MHC I

174

Ig Class: Surface of B cells

IgD

175

Ig Class: Surface of mast cells

IgE

176

Ig Class: Immediate hypersenstivity

IgE

177

Ig Class: Crosses placental barrier

IgG

178

Ig Class: Pentamer

IgM

179

Ig Class: Dimer

IgA

180

Ig Class: Mucosal surface

IgA

181

Ig Class: Primary immune response

IgG

182

B cells are found in (2)

1) Superficial cortex of LN
2) White pulp of spleen

183

CD: Pre B cell

CD 10

184

CD: NK cells

CD18

185

MHC II/HLA disease associations: Lupus

DR2

186

MHC II/HLA disease associations: Multiple sclerosis

DR2

187

MHC II/HLA disease associations: Sjogren

DR3

188

MHC II/HLA disease associations: RA

DR4

189

MHC II/HLA disease associations: IDDM

DR3

190

MHC II/HLA disease associations: Graves

DR3

191

MHC II/HLA disease associations: Hashimoto

DR5

192

MHC II/HLA disease associations: Primary biliary cirrhosis

DR8

193

Complement factors that are anaphylatoxins

C3a, C5a

194

Type of hypersensitivity: Arthus reaction

Type III

195

Type of hypersensitivity: Fibrinoid necrosis of vessels

Type III

196

Type of hypersensitivity: Polyarteritis nodosa

Type III

197

Type of hypersensitivity: RA

Type IV

198

Type of hypersensitivity: Crohn

Type IV

199

Organ transplantation: Monozygotic twins

Syngeneic

200

Organ transplantation: Same species

Allogeneic

201

Organ transplantation: Different species

Xenogeneic

202

Hyperacute, acute. subacute, chronic: Rejection that produces arthus reaction with ag-ab mediated fibrinoid vasculitis

Hyperacute

203

Hyperacute, acute. subacute, chronic: Rejection characterised by cell-mediated or humorally mediated vasculitis

Acute

204

Hyperacute, acute. subacute, chronic: Rejection characterised by vasculitis with marked thickening of intima of blood vessels, fibroblast and myocyte proliferation and luminal narrowing

Subacute

205

GVHD most commonly occurs following what transplant

Non-autologous bone marrow

206

Organs most damaged in GVHD (4)

1) Liver
2) Spleen
3) Intestine
4) Skin

207

Hallmark of chronic inflammation

Tissue fibrosis