Book 3 Italy 1850-59 Second War of Independence Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Book 3 Italy 1850-59 Second War of Independence Deck (25)
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1

Define opportunist

to make the most out of a situation to one's advantage

2

What was the Quadrilateral?

4 formidable Austrian fortifications in Lombardy

3

Define plebiscite

a national vote on a particular issue

4

Define exile

To be expelled from a country as a threat

5

What years were the Crimean War?

1854-56

6

Who did Piedmont join in the Crimean War against Russia?

Britain and France

7

What was the National Society?

Pro-Italian exiles escaped to Piedmont and joined in a group to promote their ideas.

8

What did the National Society stand for?

Austria out and some level of unification under Piedmont. (No longer pro republic after 1860).

9

Which leader of the National Society was invited to meet Cavour in 1856?

Manin

10

Who was Niagra?

Premier Cavour's trusted advisor and confident. He negotiated with the French.

11

Give TWO personal reasons why Napoleon supported Italian nationalism.

Lived there in his youth, pro-liberalism, felt badly for sending troops into Rome in 1849.

12

Give TWO political reasons why Napoleon supported Italian nationalism.

Weaken Austria, gain support at home, power in Europe, gain a southern European ally.

13

What was the Orsini plot?

Count Felice Orsini plotted the assassination of Napoleon in the name of Italian nationalism.

14

When was the secret Plombieres meeting between Napoleon and Cavour?

July 1858

15

What terms of the Plombieres meeting show Cavour as an opportunist?

For French help, Cavour accepted the unification of Italy into four blocks and gave France Nice and Savoy.

16

Why did Austria declare war on Piedmont in April 1859?

Piedmont mobilised troops on the Lombardy border.

17

What were the two main battles of the Second War of Independence?

Solferino and Magenta

18

Where did the Austrians retreat to after losing the first battle?

The Quadrilateral

19

Why did Napoleon sue for peace without Piedmont's consent?

High casualty rates, difficulty of defeating the Austrians in the Quadrilateral, fear of Prussians joining

20

What treaties ended the war of 1859?

Villafranca ended war, Zurich agreed the terms

21

How did the National Society take advantage of the war?

Organised demonstrations in the Grand Duchies and created provisional governments with links to Piedmont

22

Name THREE reasons why Cavour resigned in disgust.

Piedmont ignored, Lombardy given to France (to be given to Piedmont), No Venetia, Grand Duchies squashed

23

Who gave France Savoy and Nice, even though not all of the terms of Plombieres were met?

Cavour! He came back to leadership in January 1860

24

How did Cavour justify giving France these 'Italian' cities?

Plebicites

25

Cavour arranged the annexation of the Central Duchies. How did he justify this?

Plebicites