Flashcards in Book 4 Obstacles to Unification 1860s Deck (30)
In 1864 Napoleon agreed to withdraw troops from Rome, if the capital was moved to where?
From Turin to Florence
How did Italians respond to the capital being moved to Florence?
Riots in Turin, 23 deaths
What was Austria desperate to keep control of in the 1860s?
How did Cavour die in June 1861?
Put the 5 first pm's in chronological order [1861-66] Minghetti, Ricasoli, La Marmora, Rattazzi, Farini
Ricasoli, Rattazzi, Farini, Minghetti and La Marmora
Give two reasons why the first 5 pm's were weak.
Lack of support from King VE and weak parliamentary discipline
Who set up the Society for the Emancipation of Rome in 1862?
Italian for 'unredeemed'. Any movement to reclaim a homeland based on ethnic or historical traditions.
Why did Mazzini describe Italy as a sham?
Monarchy, unrepresented masses
List FOUR changes across the new Italy.
Unified legal codes, Italian Army, Italian Navy, unified political system
What was the Pope's response to the new Italy?
Syllabus of Errors, criticising changes such as religious tolerance.
What was the Pope's temporal power?
Non religious, 'worldly' powers such as tax collection and legal judgement
Define fractious cohabitation.
The Pope and Victor Emmanuel both held power in Italy, although not happily together.
Why was the Casati Law an issue in the South?
Compulsory primary education could not be easily introduced to the mostly illiterate south.
The introduction of unified, Piedmontese laws, customs and traditions across Italy.
Why was Piedmontisation unpopular? 4 reasons
Big changes, too fast, no local autonomy, no regional consideration.
How did Cavour deal with opposition to change in the South?
Crush it with force.
How did the education policies, in particular, upset the Catholic church?
Government closed monasteries and convents to pay for the new schools.
Why didn't the jury system work in the South?
The mafia corrupted it. Again, little regional consideration before introducing new policies.
Which powerful state was the only one to retain any autonomy from Piedmont in the short term?
Who were the Brigands?
Southern bandits that lived in the mountains during Napoleonic Wars
The life of brigands, usually supported by robbery and plunder.
Why was conscription particularly unpopular in the South?
Took young men from the farms.
Along with men who were anti-conscription, who else joined the Brigands in the 1860s?
ExBourbon soldiers, convicts, unemployed men
How many Brigands had amassed in the South by 1862?
Name FOUR ways that the Brigands were defeated by Piedmont forces in the civil war of 1865.
Executed without trial, burn towns, imprison relatives of suspects, neutrals treated as supporters, censorship
What unpopular taxes were introduced to pay for 1859 and Brigand War debt?
Flour tax and Grist (grinding grain) tax
Why did land reform, promised by Garibaldi, never happen?
Rich bought up church land, not Piedmont's priority, peasants who bought land could not afford to modernise
Which natural resource did Italy lack to industrialise?