Chapter 10 Sustainable Water Issues and Sustainability Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 10 Sustainable Water Issues and Sustainability Deck (35)
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1

Water that infiltrated into the soil –percolates downward through the pores and fractures in soil and rocks–Stored in slowly flowing, slowly regenerated underground reservoirs called aquifers•Impermeable surfaces replenishment•Subsidence saltwater infiltration

Groundwater

2

•Precipitation that does not infiltrate the ground or return to the atmosphere –At least not right away•Streams•Lakes•Wetlands•Reservoirs

Surface Water

3

begins with the evaporation of water from the surface of the ocean. As moist air is lifted, it cools and water vapor condenses to form clouds. Moisture is transported around the globe until it returns to the surface as precipitation.

hydrological cycle

4

is the process of a substance in a liquid state changing to a gaseous state due to an increase in temperature and/or pressure. is a fundamental part of the water cycle and is constantly occurring throughout nature.

Evaporation

5

Water distribition

Agriculture–41%
Industrial– 38%
Public-10%

6

What causes water shortages?

Unequal natural distribution compared to demand
•Increasing demand–Population–Lifestyle
•Groundwater overdraft
•Evaporation
•Drought (and climate change)

7

the transport of water from one region to another through pipelines and canals, to provide water to water short regions.

Water diversion

8

Over pumping of aquifer
Removal of vernal ponds
Wastewater recharge

Subsidence

9

Why water shortages?

Unequal natural distribution compared to demand
Increasing demand
Population
Lifestyle
Groundwater overdraft
Evaporation
Drought (and climate change)

10

3 major causes of ocean pollution

Sewage dumping, toxic waste and refuse dumping, oil spills

11

desalinization
salt resistant/drought tolerant crops
dams/aqueducts
conservation

methods of water sustainability

12

the concentration of toxins in an organism as a result of its ingesting other plants or animals in which the toxins are more widely disbursed.

Problems for humans
Exposure to PCBs in womb can lead to birth defects
Mercury


Biomagnification

13

The flow of chemical elements and compounds between living organisms and the physical environment. Chemicals absorbed or ingested by organisms are passed through the food chain and returned to the soil, air, and water by such mechanisms as respiration, excretion, and decomposition.

Biogeochemical cycling

14

Depends on wind,
current, temperature,
moisture sources

Water cycling

15

the upper level of the zone of saturation

water table

16

an underground body of water that forms by the the downward movement of water through the zone of saturation filling the spaces, pores, and cracks

aquifer

17

the escape of water from a plant through pores in it's leaves, draws nutrients from the soil up through the stem to the leaves

transpiration

18

rainfall and snowmelt that seeps down through the soil

infiltration

19

when water seeps from the ground surface directly above the aquifer.

unconfined aquifer

20

when an impermeable dirt/rock layer exists that prevents water from seeping into the aquifer from the ground surface located directly above.

confined aquifer

21

well from which water flows under natural pressure without pumping.

artesian well

22

A layer of porous material (rock or unconsolidated sediment); in an aquifer, the layer through which water freely passes as it moves through the subsurface.

permeable layer

23

A layer of solid material, such as rock or clay, which does not allow water to pass through.

impermeable layer

24

the movement of saline water into freshwater aquifers, which can lead to contamination of drinking water sources and other consequences

saltwater intrusion

25

what causes aquifer depletion

saltwater intrusion
subsidence
sinkholes

26

cavity in the ground, especially in limestone bedrock, caused by water erosion and providing a route for surface water to disappear underground.

sinkhole

27

the gradual caving in or sinking of an area of land.

subsidence

28

water is released into a field and then gradually flows downslope, topsoil must be carefully prepared

sheet irrigation

29

flooding fields with irrigation water which stands in the fields for several months

flood irrigation

30

water drawn from laterals by siphon tubes and empty into furrows between crop rows

furrow irrigation