Chapter 15 Plant and Animal Extinction Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 15 Plant and Animal Extinction Deck (18)
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1

Extinction Causes

Habitat Destruction
Invasive Species
Human Behavior
Specialization
Un-naturalization of Fire
Low Reproductive Rates
Non-Adaptive Behavior

2

is not necessarily an island surrounded by water, but is an area of land, isolated by natural or artificial means from the surrounding land, where a natural micro-habitat exists amidst a larger differing ecosystem.

ecological islands

3

an umbrella term describing the complete process by which habitat loss results in the division of large, continuous habitats into a greater number of smaller patches of lower total area, isolated from each other by a matrix of dissimilar habitats

Habitat Fragmentation

4

the total number of genetic characteristics in the genetic makeup of a species. It is distinguished from genetic variability, which describes the tendency of genetic characteristics to vary. serves as a way for populations to adapt to changing environments.

genetic diversity

5

biological systems – individuals and populations – are different over space. Each gene pool includes various alleles of genes. brought about, fundamentally, by mutation, which is a permanent change in the chemical structure of chromosomes.

genetic variation

6

THE DEMISE
of most or all of an entire group of animals

Faunal Collapse

7

Botanical gardens use climate-controlled facilities to provide the requirements for some plants, which propagate viable populations of plants that have gone locally extinct in the wild

Zoo-Botanical Approach

8

Protection of individual species.

Species Approach

9

Conservation of whole ecosystems including the habitat and all of the organisms that exist in that region.

Ecosystem Approach

10

the manipulation of the physical, chemical, or biological characteristics of a site with the goal of returning the majority of natural functions to the lost or degraded native habitat.

Habitat Restoration

11

species is one that the rest of the community depends upon, ensures that the backbone of an ecosystem is sustained.

Keystone Species

12

Requires that the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service identify species that are endangered or threatened.
Once a species is classified as endangered it has full legal protection under the act.
Violators can be fined up to $20,000 and imprisoned for a year.
It bans the importation of endangered species or their products.
It prohibits federal projects on areas deemed critical to the survival of endangered species.

The Endangered Species Act of 1973

13

CITES

Convention on International Trade in
Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora

14

aimed at creating incentives and assurances for the private sector to participate in sponsorship of habitat conservation plans. landholders would not be held liable for endangered species if unforeseen circumstances occured that had not been negotiated

”No Surprise” policy

15

leads the implementation of the Santa Clara Valley Habitat Plan (Habitat Plan). The Habitat Plan is a 50-year regional plan to protect endangered species and natural resources while allowing for future development in Santa Clara County. In 2013 the Habitat Plan was adopted by all local participating agencies and permits were issued from the US Fish and Wildlife Service and California Department of Fish and Wildlife. It is both a habitat conservation plan and natural community conservation plan

The Santa Clara Valley Habitat Agency

16

permit issued under Section 10 of the United States Endangered Species Act (ESA) to private, non-federal entities undertaking otherwise lawful projects that might result in the take of an endangered or threatened species.

Incidental Take Permit

17

a required part of an application for an Incidental Take Permit, a permit issued under the United States Endangered Species Act (ESA) to private entities undertaking projects that might result in the destruction of an endangered or threatened species.

habitat conservation plans

18

Plaintiffs challenged a commercial timber company’s HCP and 50 year permits (Fruit Growers Supply Co.,
FGS) covering take of Northern Spotted Owl (NSO) and Salmon on applicant’s private lands intermingled with Forest Service lands. On April 3, 2015, the district court held that the ITP issued by FWS and NMFS were arbitrary and capricious

Klamath-Siskiyou Wildlands Ctr. v. NOAA