Chapter 18 and 19 Air Pollution Global Warming and Climate Change Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 18 and 19 Air Pollution Global Warming and Climate Change Deck (22)
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1

Two Sources of Pollution

Natural
Human Caused

2

Smoke from natural fires
volcanic ash
Pollens
Variety of natural gases

Natural AP

3

smoke and fog (smog)
Carbon Monoxide,
Sulfur Oxides
Particulate matter
VOC- Volatile Organic Compounds
Nitrogen Oxides

Human AP

4

a clear odorless colorless gas caused by the incomplete combustion of of organic substances

carbon monoxide

5

any of several compounds of sulfur and oxygen, the most important of which are sulfur dioxide (SO2) and sulfur trioxide (SO3), both of which are manufactured in huge quantities in intermediate steps of sulfuric acid manufacture. The dioxide is the acid anhydride (a compound that combines with water to form an acid) of sulfurous acid; the trioxide is the acid anhydride of sulfuric acid.

Sulfur Oxides

6

the sum of all solid and liquid particles suspended in air many of which are hazardous. This complex mixture includes both organic and inorganic particles, such as dust, pollen, soot, smoke, and liquid droplets. These particles vary greatly in size, composition, and origin. Carried by wind

Particulate Matter

7

means any compound of carbon, excluding carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, carbonic acid, metallic carbides or carbonates, and ammonium carbonate, which participates in atmospheric photochemical reactions.

VOCs Volatile Organic Compounds

8

any of several oxides of nitrogen most of which are produced in combustion and are considered to be atmospheric pollutants

Nitrogen Oxides

9

Air pollution produced by the action of sunlight on hydrocarbons, nitrogen oxides, and other pollutants.

Photo Chemical Smog

10

colorless, odorless reactive gas comprised of three oxygen atoms. It is found naturally in the earth's stratosphere, where it absorbs the ultraviolet component of incoming solar radiation that could be harmful to life on earth.

ozone pollution

11

Factors that affect Air Pollution

Thermal Inversions
Radiation Inversion
Subsidence Inversion

12

temperature inversion that occurs because the ground cools faster than the air above it, resulting in build up of pollution at ground level

Radiation Inversion

13

temperature inversion caused when a mass of high pressure air settles over an area and causes pollutants to build at ground level

Subsidence inversion

14

shroud of dust particles typically found over urban areas caused by unique atmospheric circulation 'pattern making rural areas and urban areas vastky different in temperature

Dust domes

15

the tendency for the atmosphere in the city to be warmer than the surrounding farmlands, result of greater heat producing sources in the city to include cars, factories, humans

Heat Islands

16

Examples of Chronic Effects

Chronic Bronchitis
Emphysema
Lung Cancer
Asbestosis
Carbon Monoxide

17

Air Pollution Abatement and Control

Clean Air Act
1963 - weak and ineffective
1970 - Auto emissions, Air quality standards
1977 - Nonattainment areas, Emission offset policy, enforcement powers
1990 - Acid rain, pollution taxes

18

what does air pollution regulation try and control?

Controlling particulates
Controlling Sulfur Oxide Emissions
Control automotive emissions
Change fuel efficiency
Manage traffic volume
Alternative Fuels

19

Changes in earth orbit around the sun
Changes in earth tilt
Increase/decrease in solar activity
Increase/decrease in volcanic activity
Chaotic interactions of earth systems

Natural Factors Global Warming

20

Two main factors that alter Global Temperature

Greenhouse gases
Deforestation

21

Effects of Global Climate Change

Rising ocean temperatures
Melting glaciers
Decrease in polar ice
Heat waves
Increase in extreme weather events
Changes in precipitation
Agricultural region shifts
Increase in forest fires
Impacts to aquifers
Mass extinctions
Spread of insects and disease

22

How can we change direction with climate change?

Reduce emissions
Alternative fuels for generation
Increase efficiency for vehicles
Halt deforestation