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1

the pattern of density and spacing of individuals in a population.

Spatial structure

2

the range of abiotic conditions (e.g., temperature, humidity, salinity) under which a species can persist.

fundamental niche

3

: the range of abiotic & biotic conditions under which a species can persist

realized niche

4

measure of the total area covered by a population (e.g., temperature and drought define the range of sugar maple).

geographic range

5

creates geographic ranges that are composed of small patches of suitable habitat.

Small-scale variation in the EVR

6

The Lewis’ monkeyflower lives at high elevations, whereas the scarlet monkeyflower lives at low elevations.

When planted outside their natural elevations, the two species grew poorly and experienced lower survival.
what does this suggest?

plants are limited by unsuitable environmental conditions.

7

general rule about population growth

populations can grow larger in more suitable habitats.

8

what does understanding the realized niche of a species help with

species aids in species conservation and can help to limit the spread of invasive species.

9

the process of determining the suitable habitat conditions for a species.

Ecological niche modeling

10

range of ecological conditions that are predicted to be suitable for a species (differs from the realized niche, which describes conditions in which a species currently exists).

Ecological envelope

11

what do researchers use to predict potential geographic range of a species when few individuals exist?

researchers can use historic distributions of species.

12

Temperature change can cause

a shift in the geographic range of species.

13

) What is the difference between pop. distribution and population dispersion?

Population dispersion is the spacing of individuals with respect to one another within a population.

14

species that live in a single, often isolated, location.

Endemic

15

species with very large geographic ranges that can span several continents.

Cosmopolitan:

16

total # of individuals in a pop. that exist w/in a defined area (e.g., total number of lizards on a mountain).

Abundance

17

The total abundance of a population provides a measure of

whether a population is thriving or on the brink of extinction.

18

the number of individuals per unit area or volume; calculated by dividing abundance by area

Density

19

where does the largest density of indiviiduals typically occur?

near the center of a population’s geographic range.

20

What mechanisms could cause evenly spaced distributions of individuals w/in pops.?

E. territorial animals

21

the spacing of individuals with respect to one another within the geographic range of a population.

Dispersion

22

when individuals are aggregated in discrete groups (e.g., social groups or clustering around resources).

Clustered dispersion

23

when each individual maintains a uniform distance between itself and its neighbors (e.g., defended territories, croplands).

Evenly spaced dispersion

24

when the position of each individual is independent of other individuals; not common due to non-random environmental heterogeneity

Random dispersion

25

the movement of individuals from one area to another.

Dispersal

26

the seasonal movement of individuals back and forth between habitats.

migration

27

counting every individual in a population.

Census

28

surveys that define the boundaries of an area or volume and then count all of the individuals in the space.

Area- and volume-based surveys

29

surveys that count the number of individuals observed as one moves along a line.

Line-transect surveys

30

method of population estimation in which researchers capture and mark a subset of a population from an area, return it to the area, and capture a second sample of the population after time has passed.

Mark-recapture survey