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1

field of study that considers the spatial arrangement of habitats at different scales and examines how they influence individuals, populations, communities, and ecosystems

Landscape ecology

2

long-lasting influence of historical processes on the current ecology of an area.

Legacy effects

3

Eskers are the remnants of streams of water that flowed inside glaciers; as the streams flowed, they deposited soil and rock on the streambed.

After the glaciers melted, the streams appeared as long, winding hills.
This is an example of

legacy effects

4

How do humans act as ecosystem engineers?

constructing buildings, dams, irrigation channels, etc.

5

villages & farms built and abandoned by romans which broken down building materials contributed to minerals in soil is an example of what?

Habitat heterogeneity

6

the number of species in a relatively small area of homogenous habitat, such as a stream.

Local (i.e., alpha) diversity

7

the number of species in all of the habitats that comprise a large geographic area.

Regional (i.e., gamma) diversity

8

a graphical relationship in which increases in area (A) are associated with increases in the number of species (S); the curve can be described by the equation

Species-area curve

9

Species-area curve eqution

S=cA^z

10

causes an increase in the amount of edge habitat compared to the original unfragmented habitat.

Fragmentation

11

Species that prefer edge habitat increase in abundance when what occurs?

fragmentation

12

increase gene flow and genetic diversity

Corridors

13

Declining populations in habitat patches can be sustained by

the dispersal of organisms between patches via habitat corridors

14

small intervening habitat patches that dispersing organisms can use to move between large favorable habitats

Stepping stones

15

what did macarthur and wilson observe about islands closer to the mainland

islands closer to the mainland appeared to receive more colonizing species.

16

Among islands of similar size, near islands contained

more bird species than far islands.

17

They found that larger islands contained

more species

18

how did macarthur and wilson test the hypothesis that species richness is determined by both island area and isolation

they
measured bird species richness on
25 islands in the South Pacific.

19

The effects of patch size and isolation are similar

across multiple types of habitat.

20

Daniel Simberloff and E. O. Wilson conducted a manipulative experiment to test effects of

habitat size and isolation.

21

On a set of islands in the Florida Keys, they observed that islands closer to the mainland had

more insect species than islands farther from the mainland.

22

a theory stating that the number of species on an island reflects a balance between the colonization of new species and the extinction of existing species

Equilibrium theory of island biogeography

23

As more species colonize the island, more species are subject to

possible extinction due to chance and negative interactions (e.g., competition, predation, parasitism).

24

on a global scale where is biodiversity at its higherst

near the equator

25

where does biodiversity decline

towards the poles

26

examines ecological patterns and processes at large spatial scales

landscape ecology

27

the number of species increases with?

area

28

the equilibrium theory of island biogeography incorporates

area and isolation

29

Current diversity arose in response to

past environmental conditions

30

movement of landmasses across Earth’s surface

Continental drift