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1

moves many elements through ecosystems.

The hydrologic cycle

2

closely tied to the movement of energy.

The carbon cycle

3

cycles through ecosystems in many different forms.

Nitrogen

4

cycle that moves between land and water

The phosphorus cycle

5

nutrients regenerate in the soil in what ecosystems

terrestrial ecosystems

6

The movement of water from the oceans to continents is driven by

the Sun’s energy.

7

the movement of water through ecosystems and atmosphere; includes evaporation, transpiration, and precipitation.

Hydrologic cycle

8

97% of water is found in the oceans where is the reamaining water found

the remaining water is in lakes, streams, rivers, wetlands, underground aquifers, and soil

9

what happens if evaporation doesnt balance the amount of precipitation

all water would accumulate in one part of the cycle

10

on a global scale where is precipitation greater than evaporation

in terrestrial ecosystems

11

where is evaporation greater than precipitation

aquatic systems

12

what happens to excess water that falls on land

it is transported in runoff and groundwater into aquatic systems.

13

reduces the water that enters the soil and increases runoff.

Creation of impervious surfaces (e.g., roofing, pavement)

14

roofing, pavement are examples of

impervious surfaces

15

decreases evapotranspiration and also increases runoff.

Removing plant biomass

16

examples of removing plant biomass

cutting down a forest

17

a way humans use water from the ground before it can be replenished

irrigation

18

may increase temperatures and evaporation rates, leading to an intensity of rain and snowstorms.

Climate change

19

How might the ocean reduce the effects of fossil fuel combustion on CO2 concentrations in the atmosphere

by absorbing atmospheric CO2

20

in what habitats is carbon is used for respiration instead of oxygen.

In some O2 -poor habitats (e.g., swamps

21

has increased to meet energy demands Over the past two centuries

extraction and combustion of fossil fuels (e.g., coal, oil, natural gas)

22

Combustion of what releases CO2 into the atmosphere?

fossil fuels

23

greenhouse gas that absorbs infrared radiation.

CO2

24

exacerbates the problems of excessive greenhouse gases and global warming

Decomposing peat releases methane gas

25

How might N-fixing bacteria living in symbiosis w/ a plant affect the types of EVRs in which the plant could live

It would allow the plant to live in areas without much nitrogen (i.e. low nitrogen).

26

the process of converting atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into forms producers can use, including ammonia (NH3) which is rapidly converted into ammonium (NH4+), and nitrate (NO3–).

Nitrogen fixation

27

occurs in some species of cyanobacteria, free-living species of bacteria (e.g., Azotobacter) and in bacteria that form mutualisms with plants (e.g., Rhizobium).

Nitrogen fixation

28

requires high amounts of energy, which can be obtained by metabolizing organic matter or from mutualistic partners.

Fixation

29

occurs when lightning, wildfires, or combustion of fossil fuels provide energy to convert N2 into NO3–.

Abiotic nitrogen fixation

30

uses high amounts of energy to convert N2 gas into ammonia or nitrates.

Industrial production of N-rich fertilizers