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1

introduced species that spread rapidly and negatively affect other species.

Invasive species

2

species are introduced to a region of the world where they have not historically existed.

Introduced, exotic, or non-native

3

unique type of predator that can also limit the abundance of prey.

Parasitoids

4

relatively small carnivores that consume herbivores (e.g., coyotes, weasels, feral cats).

Mesopredators

5

predators that typically consume both herbivores and predators (e.g., mountain lions, wolves, sharks).

Top predators

6

The effects of herbivores may be seen by

fencing areas or removing herbivores to prevent grazing.

7

The synchrony of population cycles between consumers and the populations they consume suggests

that these oscillations are the result of interactions between them.

8

conducted a series of experiments using western predatory mites as predators and six-spotted mites as prey.

Carl Huffaker

9

Wooden posts were placed on trays as jumping points between oranges to give

prey mites a dispersal advantage

10

a model of predator-prey interactions that incorporates oscillations in predator and prey populations and shows predator numbers lagging behind those of their prey.

Lotka-Volterra model

11

N =

number of prey

12

P =

number of predators

13

c =

probability of an encounter between a predator and prey leading to the prey’s capture

14

a =

the efficiency of a predator converting consumed prey into predator offspring

15

m =

per capita mortality rate of predators

16

the population size of one species that causes the population of another species to be stable

Equilibrium (zero growth) isocline

17

the simultaneous trajectory of predator and prey populations.

Joint population trajectory

18

the point at which the equilibrium isoclines for predator and prey populations cross

Joint equilibrium point

19

relationship btw the density of prey & an individual predator’s rate of food consumption

Functional response

20

when a predator’s rate of prey consumption increases in a linear fashion with an increase in prey density until satiation occurs.

Type I functional response

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when a predator’s rate of prey consumption begins to slow as prey density increases and then plateaus; often happens because predators must spend more time handling more prey

Type II functional response

22

when a predator exhibits low, rapid, and slowing prey consumption under low, moderate, and high prey densities, respectively.

Type III functional response

23

Low consumption at low prey densities may occur for 3 reasons

1. Prey can easily find refuges to hide.

2. Predators may have less practice at locating and catching prey but develop a search image at higher prey densities.

Search image: a learned mental image that helps a predator locate and capture food.

3. Predators may exhibit prey switching by changing their diet preferences to the more abundant prey

24

a change in the number of predators through population growth or population movement due to immigration or emigration.

Numerical response

25

occurs when a prey moves away from a predator

Spatial avoidance

26

camouflage that either allows an individual to match its environment or breaks up the outline of an individual to blend in better with the background (e.g., katydids, horned lizards).

Crypsis

27

when palatable species evolve warning
coloration that resembles unpalatable species (e.g., hover flies and hornet clearwings resemble the common wasp).

Batesian mimicry

28

Defense costs can reduce

growth, development, and reproduction

29

when two or more species affect each other’s evolution; selection for prey defenses should favor the selection for counter-adaptation in predators.

Coevolution

30

crab and mussel are exaples of

coevolution