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the length of time that energy spends in a given trophic level; the longer the residence time, the greater the accumulation of energy in that trophic level

Energy residence time


the length of time that biomass spends in a given trophic level.

Biomass residence time


Average residence times for primary producers range from

more than 20 years in forests to less than 20 days in aquatic ecosystems.


the study of the balance of nutrients in ecological interactions, such as between an herbivore and a plant.

Ecological stoichiometry