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Flashcards in Clinical Descriptions in Endocrine Deck (73)
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1

Most common cause of adrenal insufficiency

Addison's disease

2

autoimmune destruction of adrenal cortex

Addison's disease

3

What is Addison's disease associated with?

pernicious anaemia
Type 1 DM
Autoimmune thyroid disease

4

Lack of CRH/ACTH caused yb pituitary/hypothalmic disease or exogenous steroid use

secondary adrenal insufficiency

5

Disorder of excess cortisol secretion with high mortality, most common in women aged 20-40

Cushing's syndrome

6

Most common cause of Cushing's?

iatrogenic

7

Autonomous production of aldosterone independent of its regulators (angiotensin II and potassium)

Primary aldosteronism

8

Commonest secondary cause of hypertension?

Primary aldosteronism

9

What are the subtypes of Primary aldosteronism?

Adrenal adenoma (Conn's syndrome)
Bilateral adrenal hyperplasia (most common cause)

10

Are genetic mutations and unilateral hyperplasia common causes of Primary aldosteronism?

no, rare causes

11

Rare condition associated with enzyme defects in the steroid pathway, commonest is 21a hydroxylase deficiency

congenital adrenal hyperplasia

12

Rare tumours of the adrenal medulla
Curable form of hypertension, but can be potentially fatal

Phaeochromocytoma

13

Phaeochromocytoma is associated with what?

Von-hippel-lindau syndrome
Multiple endocrine neoplasia II
Succinate dehydrogenase mutations
Neurofibromatosis
Tuberose Sclerosis

14

Phaeochromocytoma is associated with what?

Von-hippel-lindau syndrome
Multiple endocrine neoplasia II
Succinate dehydrogenase mutations
Neurofibromatosis
Tuberose Sclerosis

15

activation mutation in tyrosine kinase receptors

Multiple endocrine neoplasia II

16

Mutation in HIF 1-alpha, range of vascular tumours

Von-hippel-lindau syndrome

17

Most common cause of hypothyroidism in the western world

Hashimotos Thyroiditis

18

goitrous hypothyroidism which can be caused by drugs such as amiodarone

Iodine deficiency

19

Is congenital developmental defect hypothyroidism goitrous?

no

20

Typically affects elderly women with long standing but frequently unrecognized/untreated hypothyroidism
high mortality

myxoedmea coma

21

Autoimmune cause of hyperthyroidism

Grave's

22

Hyperthyroidism in older patients, more insidious onset, glands may feel nodular

multinodular goitre

23

hyperthyroidism most common in females, may be virally triggered, associated with sore throat/fever etc

sub-acute thyroiditis/De Quervians

24

Severe hyperthyroidism causing respiratory and cardiac collapse, hyperthermia, exaggerated reflexes, may be linked with an infection

Thyroid Storm

25

Commonest type of thyroid cancer.

Papillary

26

Type of thyroid cancer ass. with Hashimoto's

Papillary

27

Second most common type of thyroid cancer

Follicular

28

Incidence of this type of thyroid cancer is higher in iodine deficient areas

follicular

29

Thyroid cancer with worse prognosis?

anaplastic

30

primary overactivity of parathyroid eg adenoma

hyperparathyroidism