Conservation at the Population and Species Levels Flashcards Preview

Conservation Biology > Conservation at the Population and Species Levels > Flashcards

Flashcards in Conservation at the Population and Species Levels Deck (19)
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1

Problems with small populations

low genetic diversity
demographic issues
vulnerability to change in environment, demographics, natural disasters and disease

2

Establishing new population

reintroductions

3

Ex Situ conservation strategies

captive breeding programmes e.g. zoos

4

population viability analysis

calculating how likely (e.g. 95%) it is for a population of a certain number is to survive for a certain amount of time into the future (e.g. 100 years)

5

factors with small populations pertaining to genetic stochasticity

- loss of variability (loss of environmental flexibility)
- genetic drift
- inbreeding e.g. cheetahs
- outbreeding e.g. wildcats
- effective population size highly vulnerable to fluctuations (var. in reproductive output can be reduce this by 60-85%)

6

minimum viable population

Schaffer 1981
smallest population with a 99% chance of persisting for the next 1000 years (despite changes/natural disasters)

7

tips for reintroducing plants

- take plants from diverse populations
- fence reintroduction area
- have a reasonably sized reintroduction area
- reduce competition by removing surrounding plants

8

tips for reintroducing animals

- excellent quality habitat
- released at CORE of historical range
- wild-caught animals preferred to captive-bred
- greater success with herbivores
- balanced/appropriate sex ratios

9

plant reintroduction example

milkweed (gives Monarch butterflies poisonous characteristic)
short term (3yrs) burning helped growth
long term (4th yr) burning showed decreased growth

10

animal reintroduction example

European Lynx
- less fragmented habitat
- large habitat
- close monitoring
- farmers on-board

11

guidelines for reintroductions (6)

1. feasibility study
2. selection & evaluation of sites
3. evaluation of sustainability of proposed reintroduction individuals
4. social, economic, political conditions @ site
5. planning and properly financed
6. post-release monitoring

12

hard release

just release individuals into area and leave

13

soft release

animals moved to core of habitat in large enclosure
keep and monitor them, provide food

14

types of ex-situ conservation

long-term - re-establish/augment populations in the wild
short term - research/education

15

example of successful ex-situ conservation

Oryx - introduced last yr
allowed to be hunted in US but income from hunting sustains populations and keeps the gene pool large

16

cause of Mauritius Kestrel decline in 1970s

cats
use of DDT
crab-eating macacques
mongooses

17

London Zoo opened its doors to the paying public in which year?

1847

18

The acronym 'WAZA' is short for...

World Association of Zoos and Aquariums

19

23 of what animal were released in Chad in August 2016 as a reintroduction project?

Scimitar-horned oryx