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Flashcards in Valuing Biodiversity Deck (11)
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1

Ecosystem services

qualitative functions of natural non—produced assets of land, water and air (including related ecosystem) and their biota

2

Example of assigning economic value to biodiversity

Asian Wild Gour
1 meat harvested from wild populations DIRECT USE
2 nature tourism INDIRECT USE
3 future potential in domestic cattle breeding programs OPTION VALUE
4 intrinsic/cultural/aesthetic value EXISTENCE VALUE

3

Indirect use values (non-consumptive) (8)

1 ecosystem productivity
2 protection of water and soil resources
3 climate regulation
4 waste treatment and nutrient retention
5 species relationships
6 environmental monitors e.g. 'lungs of the world'
7 recreation and ecotourism
8 educational ad scientific value

4

direct use value

consumables

5

indirect use option

ecological services
e.g.) flood control, C offset, climate control

6

option value

premium paid to maintain resources for future use

7

existence value

intrinsic value
e.g.) cultural, spiritual, aesthetic, bequest

8

costs of maintaining biodiversity

management
collateral e.g. lost of income from land (forestry)
valuing biodiversity economically

9

The 'tragedy of the commons'

Some resources are common to everyone
-> over-exploitation of resource
e.g.) catch as many fish as can because the other person isn't going to catch less

10

Direct use values: externalities

e.g. intensive farming/loss of trees -> erosion into rivers -> sediment/silt in rivers messes up fisheries

11

ecological economics and direct economic values:
case study

Yellowstone National Park
Locals mainly rely on ecotourism now
- downside is tourists lead to disturbance of animals, car pollution and a rise in anthropogenic forest fires

4 decades ago extractive industry was also major
- mining & logging
-> cyanide pollution (used to extract from rocks)
-> silt in rivers (logging)
- much more destructive
- would damage ecotourism income