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Flashcards in Practical Applications Deck (21)
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1

Marine protected areas - key differences with terrestrial

1. open populations
2. population dynamics are more strongly coupled to physical processes
3. species and systems are poorly understood
4. several small areas are better than one large area

2

3 ocean zones around a territory (e.g. an island) to consider

12 mile territorial
up to 200 miles = exclusive economic exploration (e.g. oil/gas)
INTERNATIONAL WATERS

3

protection for birds (UK)

- illegal to own any egg collection younger than 1954
- deliberate killing/injuring/capturing (inc. eggs & nests) is illegal
- exceptions are pest species

4

2000 countryside and right of way act

can be done for destruction by neglect - must maintain a protected habitat

5

Sites of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI)

range of sizes
very strict criteria - takes a long time
can only challenge on the basis that int does not have scientific value

6

national nature reserves (NNR)

top-level, really important sites
owned by nature organisations & other organisations - e.g. national trust
strictly managed - have a manager
encouragement to get people out to these sites

7

facts and figures on habitat degradation

43% of land areas degraded
most rivers, lakes and oceans degraded

8

different paths to restoration

full/partial
species complexity/ecosystem functioning
must be self-sustaining

9

order of importance of restoration

soil/common flora/common fauna/rare species/habitat

10

methods (8 points)

tackle root cause
emergency control (e.g. if it was an oil spill)
soil remediation
allow/promote succession
habitat management
removal of invasive species
re-establish species
providing an artificial habitat (if serious irreversible damage)

11

how to fix eutrophication

absorb nutrients (in autumn)
stabilised sediments
shading to discourage algal growth
no fish/no birds (waste products => eutrophication)

12

impact of protected areas on landowners

consent for certain activities
have mechanisms to draw landowners into discussion
may need a degree of grazing (e.g, sheep)

13

BAP

biodiversity action plans
for UK species
priority species identified

14

IUNC Red Data Books

analyses on status, trends & threats to species
no legislation behind it (just info)

15

International legislation for protection
(name)

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species 1973

16

types of management

active management e.g. burning
passive management e.g. blanket bog left

17

rehabilitation of ecosystems


replacing a degrading ecosystem with a different but productive type of ecosystem

18

major causes of over-use in Costa Rican dry forest

illegal logging
fires
hunting
loss of forest cover

19

what is critical to the success of allowing succession to restore a degraded site?

soil seed bank

20

restoration methods in the appropriate order of urgency, starting with the most urgent:

1. remove cause of degradation
2. emergency control
3. soil remediation
4. allow succession
5. habitat management
6. remove invasive species
7. re-establishment of species
8. provide artificial habitat

21

Phyto-transformation is an example of what?

soil remediation