Flashcards in Consolidation and expansion of the British Empire in Africa (7) Deck (10)
Why did policies in Africa change?
In 1895 the newly elected conservative government were keen to consolidate the Empire in every part of the world. To protect existing colonies or to takeover informal ones, the British expanded in the form of the domino theory. The Berlin Conference of 1884/1885 also meant that countries had to show 'effective occupation' of their territories (at the time of the conference 80% of the continent was under native control but in the next 20 years it would shrink to 10%)
British expansion examples (Change from informal to formal)
Sierra Leone - protectorate made in 1896
Transvaal - integrated into British Union of South Africa in 1902
Sudan - 1899 made a condominium
Egypt - Protectorate established 1814
Northern Nigeria - Power shift from RNC to British Colony
Rhodesia - Southern Rhodesia protectorate in 1901 and Northern Rhodesia in 1911
Expansion in West Africa
Ashantiland and Nigeria added to old existing colonies.
Ashantiland - incorporated into the Gold Coast Colony in 1902 after the King was forced from his throne in 1896
Nigeria - North in 1900 and South in 1906, unified in 1914, took over via an agreement with the French to recognise the French state of Madagascar.
In 1890 the British and Germans had an agreement in which the British were given influence in Zanzibar, after the Pro-British Sultan was murdered in 1896, his cousin took to power and after refusing to step down was overthrown in a 38 minute battle using British naval bombardment.
Expansion in South Africa
Expanded to extend the strength of the Cape:
Rhodesia - 'South Zambesia' was known as 'South Rhodesia' from 1895 after Cecil Rhodes forced settlers into the area after wars with the Ndebele.
In 1895 Uitlanders in the Transvaal asked for the help of Cecil Rhodes who was a major financial magnate of the Rhand goldfield. He directed a raid which was headed by Dr Jameson and 500 mounted police from the BSAC. The raid failed, Jameson was imprisoned and Rhodes was forced to resign.
The Second Boer War
Caused by the dispute over Uitlander voting rights between Kruger and Milner due to the agreements of the Pretoria convention. Milner was very aggressive and when a final resolution from Kruger was given it was denied by Milner. The war started when the Boers opened with a pre-emptive strike on the Cape and besieged Ladysmith. They had success at the start of the war but were defeated by the 400,000 Imperial Troops and the £250 million the British had committed to the war. The Boers Guerrilla warfare however lengthened the war to 1902. Self-governence was granted in 1905 and in 1908 the Transvaal joined the Union of South Africa. The Union became a single Dominion territory in 1910.
1877 – Britain sends Colonel Charles Gordon to act as Governor General on behalf of Ismail Pasha (puppet leader)
British administrators face opposition from Sudanese Islamic cleric Muhammad Ahmad
1882 – Madhists had taken control over Khartoum
1883 – British-Egyptian military counter attack. British leader (Hicks) killed.
1884 – Gladstone orders Gordon to evacuate troops
1885 – British troops overrun, nearly entire garrison is killed and Gordon is beheaded. Gladstone does not retaliate.
1885 – Salisbury becomes PM and wants to re-conquer Sudan
Salisbury thought that the Sudan was vital to the protection of trade to India and the flow waters to the Nile.
Kitchener was made Commander-in-Chief of the Egyptian Army in 1896 and was determined to re-take Khartoum, further than he was directed to take.
Won the battle of Omdurman in 1898.
Chamberlain was later called to take the army to Fashoda where the 'Fashoda incident occurred'.
In 1899 the joint occupation of Sudan between Egypt and Britain was established (condominium). Kitchener was made first Governor-General and setup 'Gordan College' to train the Sudanese to run their own country.
1886 - King Mwanga asserted his authority - executing 30 catholics and protestants and provoking a civil war - fled
Handed over power to Imperial British East Africa Company - restored to power in 1889
1890 - treaty with Lord Lugard - gave power of trade, finance and justice to the Imperial British East Africa Company - powers transferred to Crown in 1894
Uganda railway as investment in possession
1896 - from Mombasa to connect the coast with the fertile and temperate highlands bordering Lake Victoria
660 millies - 5 years - £5 million - 2500 labourers died
Supported by Colonial Secretary Chamberlain
- enabled access to grater markets and for exports of tea and coffee
- protected the source of the River Nile against enemies
Consolidated takeover of colonies, linking them together and with the Indian Ocean