Crime Scene and Specialists Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Crime Scene and Specialists Deck (43)
1

Who is first on the crime scene usually?

First Officer Attending (FOA) usually a junior level police officer

2

What is the job of the First Officer Attending?

Assess, protect and communicate
Seal area off
Take log of people entering and leaving
Call for senior assistance as soon as possible

3

What is the job of scientific job officers (SSOs)?

Check cordon (have inner cordon- vicinty of crime scene and a outer cordon- protection of inner cordon)
Assess personnel/ equipment
Photography
"Those clothes"

4

What do 'stepping plates' do?

Stops people standing (contaminating) evidence

5

What are the generic things officers should carry out?

Least disturbance to body
Record body- number of wounds, position
Record everything e.g. weather, surroundings, people
Review path
Placement of tent surrounding are

6

What is the purpose of putting up a tent at a crime scene?

Stop weather and bacterial contamination, prevents media coverage

7

What are the other roles required in crime scene investigations?

CSM (crime scene manager) oversee everything/ extensive crime scenes i.e. terrorism
SIO (senior investigation officer), forensic pathologist enter
Senior Investigating Officer e.g. DS/DCI
Scientific Support Supervisor
Crime Scene Manager

8

What is the role of the forensic pathologist?

Determine cause and manner of death
Examine wounds/injuries
Collect samples
Role as an expert witness

9

What are the post-mortem changes?

1. Temperature Drop
2. Lividity
3. Rigor mortis
4. Decomposition

10

What occurs in post-mortem regarding temperature?

Body is warmer than surrounding temperature
After death body cools to outside temperature

11

What slows down the cooling down process initially?

Anaerobic resporation occurs after death (bugs in gut)

12

What are the variables affecting temperature drop after death?

Surrounding temperature
Clothing and covering (e.g. hoodies)
Body size (fatter people body temp takes longer)
Body position (curled up longer, spread out quicker
Initial temp at death (fever at death takes longer, lost a lot of blood body temp lower quickly)
Nature of death

13

What occurs in post-mortem regarding lividity?

Blood drains to the lowest point of the body due to gravity (N.B. fibrinolysins- enzymes in blood stop blood clotting, stops moving blood moving around to begin with)
Pallor (paleness) at pressure point (dead on back pale back)

14

What variables affect lividity onset?

Things like haemorrhage and chronic anaemia

15

What colour is the blood if the individual has Carbon Monoxide poisoning?

Cherry pink

16

What occurs in post-mortem regarding rigor mortis?

Stiffening of muscles due to the breakdown of ATP to ADP
Time after death (hours)

17

What is decomposition?

Gradual breakdown of tissues

18

What are the 2 processes of decomposition?

Autolysis
Putrefaction

19

What is Autolysis?

Digestive enzymes eat away at itself, auto digesting

20

What is Putrefaction?

Process of decay or rotting the body

21

What do bacteria produce and cause in the decomposition process?

Produce enzymes causing gas formation from fermentation

22

What is a Forensic Odontologist?

Examine teeth and bitemarks

23

How can forensic odontologists compare teeth before and after death?

Ante-mortem vs. post-mortem data e.g. dental records

24

What are the age estimation in teeth?

+/- 7 years for adult
+/- 6 months for child’s
+/- days for foetus

25

What is the role of the forensic anthropologist?

Identify bones

26

What features can a forensic anthropologist identify?

Human/animal
How many individuals
Sex
Stature
Age- foetus/ child/ adult
Foetus- 3 fragmented bones
Child- one bone with a scar
Adult- one smooth bone

27

What is the easiest way to ID bone?

Excavation in situ
Once bone is taken out of context, it's harder to ID

28

What are the radioisotope dating options?

Carbon 14
Lead 210
Caesium 137
Polonium 210

29

How can Carbon 14 age bones?

In bone when alive, don't obtain any more after death, decay can indicate age

30

How can Caesium 137 identify bones?

Can tell if it was post or pre nuclear testing

31

How can Polonium 210 identify bones?

Can tell you if death was in the last 2/3 years

32

Whats the main bone differences in males and females?

Bone structure of pelvis and cranium

33

What is the difference between a male and female pelvis?

Female pelvis is broader, wider and flatter than males

34

What is the difference between a male and female cranium?

Differences in skeletal and muscle attachment, males have point at the back of the head which women dont

35

What age group can you not distinguish sex from?

Pre-pubescent juveniles

36

Which bones can height be assessed from?

Long bones and refer to data to determine height

37

What is musculature assessed from?

Muscle insertion site
Bone robusticity
Site of joint surfaces

38

What does bone reconstruction show?

Allows damage to be assessed
Helps explain events

39

What can gunshot wounds (GSW) show?

Size of entry, wound, weapon, bullet trajectory, location, distance of perpetrator

40

What can blunt force trauma show?

Weapon used, number of blows

41

What does black bone mean?

Bone burned at a cooler temperature

42

What can Anthropoligist ID?

Human/ animal
Age band
Elements present/ absent
Minimum number individuals
Age, sex, stature, race
Identifying features, skeletal or dental anomalies and pathology
Reconstruct remains

43

What is the difference in the age of bones?

Child under 5- three bones
Teenager to young adult- one bone with scar down in
Older adult- one smooth bone