Problematic Body Recovery Flashcards Preview

Forensic BioScience > Problematic Body Recovery > Flashcards

Flashcards in Problematic Body Recovery Deck (56)
1

What are the aims of problematic body recovery?

Find it
Total recovery
Max trace evidence
Understand taphonomy
ID method of concealment
ID duration
Interpret events
Determine criminality
Clear representation in court

2

What is taphonomy?

Combination of extrinsic (environmental ie sand vs. water) and intrinsic (internal body i.e. old vs. young) factors as to why body looks the way it does

3

What specialists are used in Problematic body recovery?

Anthropologist
Archaeologist
Biologist/Chemist
Botanist
Entomologist
Pathologist
Soil scientist
Vomitologist

4

What does an Anthropologist do?

Bone ID, body reconstruction

5

What does an Archaeologist do?

Body & trace evidence recovery, search, criminality

6

What does a Biologist/Chemist do?

Trace evidence

7

What does a Botanist do?

Enviro profiling, trace evidence, duration, search advice

8

Wha does an Entomologist do?

Insects to ID duration

9

What does a Pathologist do?

Cause of death

10

What does a soil scientist do?

Trace evidence (layers of soil, links)

11

What does a Vomitologist do?

Timing of death (stomach contents)

12

Where are specialists recruited from?

SCA (Serious Crime Authority) recommendation,
SPA (Scottish Police Authority), biologists and chemists
Charities
Private companies- expensive
Individuals- not always forensically aware
Universities- Strathclyde, Glasgow, Dundee
Museums

13

What are the separate elements of body recovery?

Search
Evacuation
Body recovery
ID duration
Trace evidence gathering and recording
ID CMOD & events over post-mortem interval
Specialist trace evidence analysis & interpretation

14

What is involved in finding a missing person (MISPER)?

Preserve evidence (uncompromised)
Haste, not speed
Keep costs down
Discretion

15

What is involved for wide scale search?

Aerial photos
Maps

16

What is involved with small searches i.e. several acres or less?

Field walking
Environmental profiling

17

What happens when nothing is visible on the group?

Geophysics
Topsoil strip
Trial excavation

18

What is aerial photography?

Standard archaeology skill
Good for wide area search (hidden graves etc)
ID disturbances in topography & vegetation (e.g. grave, tyre tracks)
Natural or man made
Compare images: Royal Commission archive & helicopter flyover pics

19

What is used for maps and DBA?

OS maps and PastMap (online archaeology database)

20

What do maps and DBA eliminate?

Archaeological sites
Service tranches
Natural features

21

What is environmental profiling?

Work with dog handlers & Police Search Advisors (POLSA)
Archaeology, botany, soils
Rules out areas
Costs and search time reduced
Duration of deposition human remains/objects
Trace evidence recovery

22

What is the theory used to identify a body?

Remains alter natural topography
Change soil profile & stratigraphy (layers of soil- mixtures of layers if dug up, burrials)
Increase water holding capacity- body in burial, organic material, soil is softer and moister, last for hundreds of years
Affect overlying vegetation- height, colour, type, and health
ID these changes gives info on duration & sequence of event at the locus

23

What is differences are looked for in topography?

Abnormal hollows or bumps
Initially soil burial is raised
Ground sinks as body decays
Grave edges may be defined
Cracks on surface/
Differential cracking- X marks the spot above body
Cracks on surface/ edges of grave
“Spoil” may be scattered around

24

What timing effects do ID duration due to vegetation have?

Site specific
Depends on habital & season
Roots on body growing through rib cage, roots have growth tells you how long bodys been there

25

What are the short term effects of plant vegetation on remains?

Nutrients & gases toxic
Plants stunted/dead
Annual weds only
Soil bare

26

What are the long term effects of plant vegetation on remains?

Nutrients beneficial
Plants teller/ lush
Nettles, brambles high (conceal body)
Tall weeds present

27

What does burial chronology show?

Not deep
Not big enough
Soil shoved back in, panic
Takes a few years for deep routed plants to return

28

What does burial duration indicate?

Skull near graveyard
Mistaken for a boulder
Criminal/ archaeological
Mosses suggest exposed for at least several years
Lichens (symbiotic relationship between fungus and alga) growing inside bone: exposed less 100 years

29

When is geophysics used?

When no disturbance is visible

30

What is geophysics?

Archaeological skill
Provides target areas to investigate by trial trenching
Different techniques for varying situations
Specialists advice and interpretation is required

31

What is resistivity?

Resistance to current between 2 electrodes
Soil moisture conducts current
Water/ loose soil less resistant than compacted- gives peak
Good for features retaining some water (e.g. ditches, old graves)
Not good if waterlogged or very dry

32

What is magnetometry?

ID changes to magnetic field by burning, buried metal or refilled holes
Fast- 20 mins to cover 20m2
Works in waterlogged soil
Works in very dry soi

33

What is magnetometry affected by?

Affected by overhead power cables & ferrous metal on site

34

What is Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR)?

Radar frequencies bounce off sub-surface features
ID pits, ditches & graves
ID voids in walls & concrete
Works to 3m down

35

What conditions does GPR work well in?

Good for urban sites & rough terrain, unaffected by metal/cables

36

What conditions does GPR not work well in?

NOT good in wet, standing water, or clay rich soils

37

What is monitored top-soil strip?

If search are is very large & no disturbance visible
Removal of the topsoil can reveal a grave cut
Cut shows as differences in soil colour & compaction
Analysis of cut helps tell how the grave was dug

38

How can the top of suspicious holes be identified as suspicious or unsuspicious?

Indicated by search dog stratigraphy & roots indicate undisturbed

39

How can the bottom of suspicious holes be identified as suspicious or unsuspicious?

Body depo site- soil compaction, colour & root growth

40

What is the 3 stages of burial of human remains?

Digging the hole
Deposition of the body
Backfilling the grave

41

What environmental factors can ID remains?

Grave profile
Soil layers
Position of remains

42

What is looked for in problematic body recovery?

Duraton of deposition
Method of digging/ backfill
Method of deposition
Multiples contemporary/serial
Post-deposition activity
Tool marks & footprints

43

What is the use in recording burial remains?

Stratigraphy can be interpreted
Detailed plan drawing helps interpret events & jury to understand
Used with mapping techniques to provide detailed account of events
Takes time & skill to do

44

What specialists are used in grave/ open air body recovery?

Archaeology, botany, osteology, entomology, biology skills

45

What do ostologists do?

Record and reconstruct events
ID bones present
Determine duration from soil layers, vegetation and insects
Sample for trace evidence
Sieve & search soil for evidence
Giver further search advice

46

What is the base and profile of a grave useful for?

May retain tool marks, footprints etc.

47

What must happen to grave fill and surrounding soil?

Sieves and retained

48

What is the process in open air body recovery?

Scavengers scatter remains- search advice vital
Standard archaeology techniques used
Decomposition site is mapped, soil researched
Botanist can ID duration of scattered items
Enviro & insect sampling done
Detailed archaeological recording will ID events and timings

49

What can recording evidence help with?

Recording:
•Cause and manner of death
•Deposition and duration
•Post depositional activity (human/ animal)
Help assign body parts to correct individual if more than one present

50

What are tapes and grids used for?

Locus divided into squares
Each square is searched, sieved, evidence recorded & mapped
Ensures rigorous search
Helps interpret events
Visual representation for jury
Enables spatial patterning analysis
Maximises trace evidence recovery

51

How relevant is a grid search?

ALWAYS relevant

52

What does grid search ensure?

Max recovery- small bones, trace evidence

53

What causes variation in Grid search?

Terrain/remit

54

What does grid search show?

Links people to places
Possible months/ years after the crime
WORKS

55

What is microscopic level of search used for?

Floted soil can be dried & searched microscopically for small trace evidence (hairs, fibres, seeds etc)
Larger items (bindings, weapons etc) can be dissected out of soil uncompromised using low magn microscopy

56

What can 3D plotting of remains through GPS show?

Measures heights, distances & angles
Quick & accurate
Gives 3D plan of locus & record of evidence
Eg: plane crash or body decomposed & scattered by scavengers
Area taped & gridded
Parts recorded using GPS