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Flashcards in Document Analysis Deck (25)
1

What is document analysis also known as?

Questioned documents

2

What is the aim of most techniques for document analysis?

Avoid damage or alteration to documents

3

What are possible good light sources that can be used?

Good daylight
Lamps
Microscopy (5 x 40)

4

What other equipment may be used?

Low power stereomicroscopy
Infrared, UV- shows alteration of inks
ESDA (Electrostatic detection analysis)

5

What are oblique light sources useful for?

Looking at document from different angles

6

What are methods of recording visual results?

Photograph, photocopy

7

In document analysis what is examined?

Individuals
Signatures
Document origin & history- when and how document produced
Document dating- authenticity
Alteration, deletions, additions
Counterfeit documents

8

What can be used to identify of individuals?

Fingerprinting
DNA profiling
Handwriting

9

What do you look for in handwriting?

Construction of character forms
Natural variation- variation in writing from a few days ago to present
Comparison material
Other variations- writing tool, unusual circumstances writing on e.g. rough surfaces
Non-Roman script- e.g. Arabic or Chinese going to English

10

What are the three basic types of handwriting in the UK?

1. Block
2. Cursive
3. Script

11

What are signatures?

Most frequently used handwriting
Unconsciously produced
Genuine/forged signatures
Cannot use photocopies
Looking at strokes, direction of strokes, letters, dotted I’s etc.

12

What are the types of forgery?

Tracing
Freehand simulation
Authorship of simulation
Self-forgery
Vulnerable signatures
Guided hand signatures- forced to write signature
Comparison material
Conclusions
Look for- shaky, unnatural similarity

13

What are the limitation of photocopies?

Loose fine detail that you get from original document

14

What are drum marks?

These are things like dust, debris, with those might be able to identify specific machine

15

What is a use of photocopies?

Lots of documents, link several document, can like photocopies to a particular photocopier

16

What are the types of printing and typewriting?

Word processors
Laser printers
Ink-jet printers
Dot matric printers
Typewriters
Any particular defects transferred onto document

17

What are printer characteristics?

Any sort of changes/ difference

18

What can examination of ink show?

Usually non-destructive comparative analysis
Infrared spectroscopy
Fluorescence
Raman Spectroscopy
Thin layer chromatography/ high performance chromatography

19

What is the con of chemical analysis?

Destructive

20

What can you look at to analyse paper?

Size
Thickness- Can age paper depending on materials within them
Density
Colour
Finish
Biological fibres
Watermark

21

How can you look at deep impressions on paper?

With light

22

What is ESDA (Electronic detection 1979) used for?

Two documents stored together, indentation thin enough transfer of writing

23

How do folds and creases demonstrate history?

Tears matched/mechanical fit

24

What do staples and punch holes produce?

Staples-psychical damage
Punch holes- irreplaceable changes

25

What is changed in documents that are forged?

Erasing documents a document- move around
Obliterated
Addition ink entries
Backdated information