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Flashcards in Developmental Psychology Deck (126)

The life-span perspective of developmental psychology defines it as what? 


the study of changes in abilities, thoughts,  and behaviors that occur as one ages



What are three key debates in the field of developmental psychology?


  1. nature vs. nurture 
  2. continuity vs. discontinuity
  3. stability vs. change 


Which pervasive debate in developmental psychology deals with the extent to which heredity and the environment each influence behavior?


nature vs. nurture debate



Stability vs. change, a controversy in developmental psychology, deals with what issue? 


whether or not personality traits present during infancy endure throughout the lifespan



Which theorist is credited with successfully championing the view that development occurs across an entire lifetime? 


Erik Erikson



What is the difference between life-span psychologists and child psychologists? 


both study development, but child psychologists focus on the earlier portion of the life-span



What is defined as the typical sequence of developmental changes for a group of people? 


normative development



What research method is most often used in normative development? 


cross-sectional method



Describe the cross-sectional method.


this method compares groups of people of different ages on similar tasks



What is one shortcoming of the cross-sectional method? 


data collected reveals little about the actual development of any single individual



Describe the longitudinal method.


involves following a small group of people over a long portion of their lives, assessing change at set intervals



What are two shortcomings of the longitudinal method?


  1. difficult to conduct due to attrition of participants
  2. expensive to conduct 


What is a benefit of the longitudinal method? 


the study of individuals over time rules out the differences between subjects that other studies include 



Describe the cohort effect.


when there are differences in the experiences of each age group as a result of growing up in different historical times



In which study method are cross-sectional groups assessed at least two times over a span of months or years?


cohort-sequential studies 



What is maturation?


biological readiness



  • conceptualizing different learning cues and incorporating them into future interactions
  • genetically programmed growth and development of the body
  • learning through various social interactions over the life-time

genetically programmed growth and development of the body



From the maturation perspective of development, what is the benefit of greater preprogrammed physiological development of the brain?


more complex conceptualization and reasoning



Locke proposed the idea of __________, which states that all development is the direct result of learning; the organism develops more complex behaviors and cognition because it acquires more associations. 


tabula rasa 



Continuous development is gradual.



One example of continuous development is social skill building.



One example of stage-oriented, or __________, learning is experiencing a growth spurt.





The time during which a skill or ability must develop is referred to as the __________. 


critical period 



What are the two divisions of culture in developmental psychology? 


  1. collectivist
  2. indivualist 


Which type of culture promotes personal needs above the needs of the society?



Western cultures are typically viewed as individualist cultures.



What do collectivist cultures emphasize?


the needs of society, which are placed before the needs of the individual

Many Asian cultures are considered collectivist cultures.



Stages are patterns of behavior that occur in a __________. 


fixed sequence 



How do the developmental stages of psychology work?


each stage has a unique set of cognitive structures (or sets of mental abilities) that build on the cognitive structures established in the previous stage 



What are the three realms of development?


  1. physical 
  2. cognitive
  3. social


When does physical development begin? 


at conception



What are the three phases of gestation that the zygote experiences? 


  1. germinal stage
  2. embryonic stage
  3. fetal stage 


During which stage of gestation does the zygote experience rapid growth, movement, and sexual differentiation?


the fetal stage 



Alcohol is one example of a __________, wherein exposure could lead to fetal alcohol syndrome.





This condition, appearing in children whose mothers have consumed high levels of alcohol during pregnancy, is characterized by mental retardation, growth deficiency, and central nervous system damage.


fetal alcohol syndrome



What six reflexes is the neonate equipped with?


  1. sucking reflex
  2. palmar reflex
  3. Babinski reflex
  4. head-turning (rooting) reflex
  5. Moro reflex
  6. orienting reflex 


When I put my finger in a neonate's hand and she grabs it, this exemplifies which reflex?


palmar reflex



Although most of the infant reflexes disappear as the child matures, which reflex persists into adulthood? 


orienting reflex 



According to the Babinski reflex, what response will an infant have to being stroked on the bottom of the foot? 


the toes will splay out 



When a loud noise occurs, the infant's limbs will splay out. This exemplifies which infantile reflex?


the Moro reflex 



What is the head-turning, or rooting, reflex?


the response elicited by touching the baby's cheek



Which reflex is triggered by placing something in the baby's mouth?


the sucking reflex



Placing a drop of sugar water in an infant's mouth will spur what response? 


stereotyped ingestive response



The neural system is responsible for the perceptual and motor development. What is responsible for the development of the nervous system?


environmental interaction



__________ refers to the development of learning, memory, reasoning, and problem-solving.


Cognitive development 



Jean Piaget's developmental theory is based on what concept? 


a child's attempt to reach a balance between what he encounters in the environment and what cognitive structures he brings to the situation (equilibration)



What is one way through which children attempt to reach equilibration, according to Piaget's theory?





Assimilation involves incorporating new ideas into already-existing mental representations, or __________. 





What process must a child undergo when faced with information that does not easily fit into an existing schema?





Piaget believed that the stages of development were flexible.



Piaget believed that the stages occur in a fixed order, and that a child can only be in one stage at any given time. 



What are Piaget's stages of development?


  1. sensorimotor
  2. pre-operational
  3. concrete operational
  4. formal operational


Which three stages in Piaget's theory of development are characterized by the child's use of schemas? 


  1. pre-operational
  2. concrete operational 
  3. formal operational


Which stage in Piaget's stages of development is characterized by the presence of theoretical thinking? 


formal operational stage 



Reflexive reactions and circular reactions (repeated behaviors through which the infant manipulates the environment) are typical in which of Piaget's stages of development?


sensorimotor stage 



If a toy disappears from a child's field of view, the child will continue to look for it. This exemplifies the development of which process during the sensorimotor stage?


object permanence 



In which stage of Piaget's theory of development does goal-oriented behavior appear? 


sensorimotor stage 



The pre-operational stage of Piaget's theory of development is characterized by the shift to __________, the ability to use words to substitute for objects. 


symbolic thinking



The inability to see the world from anyone else's point of view is __________. 





If your nephew belives that his stuffed animal is alive, he is subscribing to what belief, found in Piaget's pre-operational stage?





  • the belief that all things are human-made
  • the belief that nothing is human-made
  • the belief that things can be either human or machine-made

the belief that all things are human-made 



What two important concepts appear during Piaget's concrete operational stage? 


  1. reversibility
  2. conservation


The ability to perform a mental operation, then reverse thinking back to a starting point is a concept known as __________. 





If I have a set amount of water that I pour into different sized glasses, a child in the concrete operational stage of Piaget's theory of development will understand that the amount of water has not changed just because it was arranged differently.

This demonstrates the child's understanding of what concept? 





Piaget's formal operational stage, in which children are fully capable of understanding abstractions and symbolic relationships, begins at around what age?


age 12



What two abilities does a child at Piaget's formal operational stage acquire? 


  1. metacognition
  2. hypothetical reasoning


What is metacognition?


the ability to recognize one's cognitive processes and change or adapt those processes if necessary



If you are able to construct a solution to a problem with which you have no experience, you would be exhibiting what ability found in Piaget's formal operational stage?


hypothetical reasoning 



What are two criticisms of Piaget's theory of development?


  1. underestimation of children's abilities (especially at age 4 to 5)
  2. failure to recognize environmental factors in development 


The opposite of egocentrism, __________, develops around age 4 and allows children to understand that other people see the world differently than they do. 


the theory of mind 



How do psychologists test theory of mind? 


false-belief task



Who was the theorist responsible for stressing social factors as critical for developmental processes? 


Lev Vygotsky 



What is internalization?


Internalization is the absorption of knowledge into the self from environmental and social contexts.



According to Vygotsky, the __________ is the range between the developed level of ability that a child displays and the potential level of ability of which the child is capable.


zone of proximal development 



Vygotsky proposed that a child realizes his potential through a process that allows him to move across the zone of proximal development. Name this process.





As people get older, they show a decrease in ________ intelligence, marked by the ability to think in abstract concepts and symbolic relationships. This is accompanied by a simultaneous increase in ________ intelligence, marked by specific knowledge of facts and information. 


fluid; crystallized 



What characterizes social development?


the ability to interact with others and with our normative social structures 



Which theorist developed a theory that viewed development as a series of "conflicts" that must be resolved? 


Erik Erikson



What are the eight stages of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development? 


  1. trust vs. mistrust
  2. autonomy vs. shame and doubt
  3. initiative vs. guilt
  4. industry vs. inferiority 
  5. identity vs. role confusion
  6. intimacy vs. isolation
  7. generativity vs. stagnation
  8. integrity vs. despair 


Name and describe the first stage in Erikson's psychosocial stage theory.


trust vs. mistrust

During this time, babies learn whether they can trust their envirnoment and their caregivers to provide them with the things they need for survival.



Which of Erikson's stages is marked by potty training and temper tantrums?

autonomy vs. shame and doubt

This is the stage when children begin asserting their control over their bodies and behaviors.


If your little brother asks, "why?" about everything you do, which of Erikson's stages is he likely in?

initiative vs. guilt

This is the stage where children try to understand the world around them, and asking questions helps them solve problems.


What psychosocial stage begins in first grade, and is characterized by children comparing themselves to others more regularly than before (meaning they need more positive reinforcement)?


industry vs. inferiority



The successful resolution of which one of Erikson's stages results in fidelity, or truthfulness to oneself?


identity vs. role confusion



From around 21-40 years of age, we attempt to find and navigate meaningful relationships. What stage is this?

intimacy vs. isolation


The drive to be productive in one's career and at home, and to leave our "mark" on the world is __________. While "solving" this can induce feelings of accomplishment, failure to resolve the stage can produce feelings of isolation or __________. 


generativity; stagnation



Which stage occurs during old age and involves coming to terms with successes and failures? 


integrity vs. despair 



Which 1950s researcher was able to demonstrate that rhesus monkeys need comfort and security just as much as food?


Harry Harlow 



John Bowlby is considered to be the father of what theory?


attachment theory 



Describe the idea of self-referencing.


Self-referencing is to observe the behavior of others in social situations to obtain information or guidance.



What tendency is defined as the preference of specific familiar individuals over others? 





Mary Ainsworth studied infant attachment using the "strange situation." What is the "strange situation"?


the parent or primary guardian leaves a child with a stranger and then returns, observing behavior in absentia. This allows researchers to see the infant's style of attachment. 



According to Mary Ainsworth, there are three types of infant attachment patterns. What are they?


  1. secure 
  2. anxious/ambivalent
  3. avoidant

There is also a "disorganized" type of attachment, in which the child behaves erratically.



This type of attachment, in which the child uses the parent for support, is the most common. What is it? 


secure attachment 



What behaviors are consistent with anxiously/ambivalently attached babies in the strange situation experiment?

These babies often show signs of distress when parents leave the room, but resist or refuse comforting from them when they return.


During the strange situation experiment, how do children with avoidant attachment behave?

Avoidant children are unafraid of their environments and will explore while their parents are out of the room. When the parents return, avoidant children will not seek comfort.


Name the three types of parenting styles.


  1. authoritarian 
  2. authoritative
  3. permissive 


If a child is routinely spanked for disobedience and lacks curiosity and decision-making capabilities, what parenting style do her parents most likely identify with?





What discipline patterns would you find consistent with authoritative parenting?


  • rules that are consistently but fairly enforced
  • behavioral standards that are clearly set but encourage a degree of independence from the child

Children of authoritative parents are typically more emotionally controlled and trusting than those from other parenting styles.



What style of parenting is consistent with a lack of defined rules or rules that are inconsistently enforced?

permissive parenting


Elisabeth Kubler-Ross pioneered a theory of social development about the stages of death and dying in which she identified stages of grief. What are the stages? 


  1. denial
  2. anger
  3. bargaining
  4. depression
  5. acceptance 


True or false: the stages of death and dying defined by Elisabeth Kubler-Ross are in a strict order and must be experienced one after another.



These stages are not necessarily ordered.



Level one of Kohlberg's theory of moral development occurs between ages 7 and 10 and is identified by what two-stage system of moral judgment?


preconventional morality



What is the difference between stage one and stage two of Kohlberg's stages of preconventional morality?


In stage one, children make judgments motivated by fear, whereas in stage two they make judgments by evaluating benefits.



Kohlberg's level two of moral development is characterized by the utilization of __________ , or the internalization of society's rules and morals.


conventional morality



In Kohlberg's third level of moral development, which occurs from around age 16 on, the individual adheres to postconventional morality, which is characterized by what?


the development of an internal set of values that may generate occasional conflict with societal values



What is a major shortcoming of Kohlberg's theory of moral development? 


Kohlberg's theory is inadequate for describing the moral development of people who live in non-Western cultures.



Carol Gilligan revised Kohlberg's theory in order to place emphasis on the development of __________ as central to moral progress. 


caring relationships



Psychosexual development involves what two factors?  


  1. awareness of one's own sexuality
  2. identification of the self with a particular gender 


Between ages two and seven, children acknowledge sex-related roles, or __________. At this time, they also come to learn about __________, the idea that gender is a fixed and unchangeable characteristic.


gender typing; gender constancy



The biological perspective attributes sex differences to __________. 





According to the psychoanalytic perspective, when do children learn their gender roles? 


 Children learn to identify with their same-sex parent as a result of resolving either the electra or oedipal complex.



Which perspective postulates that children acquire their gender identity through the observation and imitation of significant role models, like parents?


behavioral perspective 



Which perspective sees gender differences as our behavioral tendencies that prepare us to survive and reproduce? 


evolutionary perspective



According to the __________ perspective, children actively engage in making meaning out of information they learn about gender.





Which theory proposes that children form a schema of gender that filters their perceptions of the world according to what is appropriate for males and females? 


gender schema theory 



Under what circumstances does androgyny normally occur? 


when children blur the lines between stereotypical male and female roles in society



Name the five stages of Freud's theory of psychosexual development?


  1. oral 
  2. anal
  3. phallic
  4. latency
  5. genital


According to Freud, inadequate resolution of any psychosexual stage that prevents an individual from progressing, is known as __________. 





If a baby puts everything in his mouth that he comes into contact with, which psychosexual stage would Freud argue he is in?

oral stage


Which psychosexual stage is associated with toilet training, and represents a child's learning to control bodily functions?


anal stage



According to Freud, this stage of psychosexual development is characterized by the experiencing the oedipus complex in boys, and the electra complex in girls.


phallic stage 



What psychosexual stage is considered a period of calm that does not create new psychosexual anxiety?

latency stage


What is the final psychosexual stage of development, according to Freud?


The final stage is the genital stage, which is marked by finding pleasure through sexual focus on the genital regions.



The Oedipal complex, in which the male child exhibits sexual desire for the mother, is a result of fixation at which stage of Freud's psychosexual development?


phallic stage

In girls, this is called the Electra complex.



True or false: Bandura believed that sexual roles are acquired through social or vicarious learning so that each successive generation provides the model for the following generation.





Puberty is a sexual maturation, marked by the onset of what ability? 


the ability to reproduce



Emerging during puberty, __________ , such as the growth of reproductive organs, develop. 


primary sex characteristics 



In women, widening of the hips and breast development, would be two features of __________.


secondary sex characteristics