a need or desire that serves to energize or direct behavior
What are needs or desires that energize behavior toward a goal?
To be considered a true instinct, or inherited behavior pattern characteristic of a species, what must it be?
An instinct must be performed automatically in the same way by all members of a species in response to a specific stimulus.
What is the level of alertness, wakefulness, and activation caused by activity in the central nervous system?
List four primary drives.
need to sleep
drive to reproduce
The desire to obtain learned reinforcers, like money or social acceptance, is known as __________.
Secondary reinforcers are also known as secondary drives.
What are the four primary theories attempting to explain the link between neurophysiology and motivated behavior?
Which theory of motivation, supported by evolutionary psychology, contends that the learning of species-specific behavior motivates organisms to do whatever is necessary to ensure their survival?
What does the arousal theory of motivation state?
The arousal theory of motivation states that there is an optimum level of arousal (or: alertness and activation) at which performance on a given task is optimal.
What is the Yerkes-Dodson law, and on what theory of motivation is it based?
The Yerkes-Dodson law states that tasks of moderate difficulty elicit the highest level of performance. High levels of arousal for easy tasks and low levels of arousal for difficult tasks are preferred.
This law is based off of the arousal theory of motivation.
The opponent-process theory of motivation, most relevant to the concept of __________, suggests that we are motivated to seek stimuli that make us feel emotion, after which an opposing motivational force brings us back in the direction of a baseline.
Which theory of motivation posits that psychological needs put stress on the body and that we are motivated to reduce this negative experience?
Homeostasis is important because it keeps our body in a constant state of equilibrium. Through what operation does homeostasis occur?
negative feedback loop
_______ is the sum total of all chemical processes that occur in our bodies and are necessary to keep us alive.
What are three environmental cues that regulate eating behavior?
In terms of regulatory functioning, what is the role of the hypothalamus?
hunger, sex, and other homeostatic functioning
What are the two candidate hypotheses for the feedback loops controlling eating?
Explain how the glucostatic theory of homeostatic regulation works.
Glucose is the primary fuel of the brain and most other organs; when insulin (a hormone produced to regulate glucose) rises, glucose decreases. In order to restore glucostatic balance, a person needs to eat.
This theory gained support through the discovery that the hypothalamus has cells that detect glucose.
What is one shortcoming of the glucostatic theory of homeostatic regulation of eating?
Blood glucose levels are transient; it is unlikely that such a variable measure could control body weight, which tends to remain stable from early adulthood
Diabetics, who suffer from an insulin production disorder, have elevated blood glucose levels but are no less hungry than other people
Describe the lipostatic hypothesis.
The lipostatic hypothesis states that fat is the measured and controlled substance in the body that regulates hunger; it provides the long-term energy store for our bodies.
This hypothesis gained support after the discovery of leptin, a hormone secreted by fat cells, which is used by the brain to monitor the amount of fat in the body.
In order to be diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, one must be what percentage below ideal body weight?
What two states characterize bulimia nervosa?
What are characteristics of obesity?
Obesity is seen in people who are significantly overweight, which frequently causes health problems. Obesity can be caused by unhealthy eating patterns or genetic predisposition.
Humans can live only a few days without water because of the many mechanisms through which water leaves the body. What are three such mechanisms?
Which theory of obesity claims that each person has a preset natural body weight determined by the number of fat cells in our body?
Which area of the brain is greatly implicated in drinking?
What part of the brain is responsible for telling us to eat?
The lateral hypothalamus tells us to eat; without it, we will starve and die.
What part of the brain tells us when to stop eating?
The ventromedial hypothalamus is responsible for knowing when we are satiated and telling us we do not need to eat any more.
The lateral and ventromedial areas of the hypothalamus work together to keep the body in stasis.
__________ and __________, the primary sexual hormones in males and females, are produced by the pituitary gland and ignite the motivation to reproduce.
What are the four stages in the biological sexual response cycle, as cited by Masters and Johnson?
excitement (sexual arousal)
Who was the theorist responsible for proposing a hierarchical system for organizing needs?
What are the five levels of the hierarchical system of needs?
safety and security needs
Maslow's hierarchy of needs are listed in a strict order, in which each lower level need must be met in order for the next category to be filled in.
According to Maslow, when does self-actualization, the ultimate goal of human beings, occur?
Self-actualization occurs when one finds a way to fulfill one's own potential.
According to cognitive psychologists, motivating factors of behavior can be divided into what two subsets?
What is the basis of incentive theory?
Positive or negative environmental stimuli motivate behavior toward a goal.
Which theory of motivation, proposed by Richard Lazarus, proposes that our emotional experience depends on our interpretation of the situation we're in?
Often aroused when people feel threatened, anxious, or celebratory, which motive is characterized by the need to be with others?
Extrinsic motivators come from the __________, and are often associated with getting an education, having a job, and being sociable.
Intrinsic motivation, which emanates from __________ is associated with creativity and enjoyment.
__________, the need to feel competent and in control, is an important intrinsic motivator, although it frequently conflicts with the pressures of extrinsic motivators.
The desires to meet internalized standards of excellence, according to McLelland, are known as __________.
What is the overjustification effect?
According to the overjustification effect, after receiving an external reward for doing something for which one is intrinsically motivated, intrinsic motivation often diminishes.
What is self-efficacy?
Self-efficacy is the belief that we can or cannot attain a particular goal.
According to Lewin, what are the four types of conflict?
If I have to choose one snack between two of my favorite foods, what conflict would this be classified under, according to Lewin?
The saying "the lesser of two evils" refers to which type of conflict, according to Lewin?
What is the approach-avoidance conflict characterized by, according to Lewin?
presentation of only one choice that carries both pluses and minuses
What kind of conflict, according to Lewin, is characterized by many options, each carrying its own positives and negatives?
Describe the James-Lange theory of emotion.
This theory asserts that changes in physiological states occur before and result in emotion.
Which theory of emotion, as a response to the James-Lange theory, asserts that the physiological response to emotion and the experience of emotion occur simultaneously in response to emotion-provoking stimuli?
cannon-bard theory of emotion
What are the two factors of Schachter and Singer's two factor theory of emotion?
how we cognitively label the experience of arousal
What are the three stages in Selye's general adaptation syndrome that describe our body's reaction to stress?
This scale, created by Holmes and Rahe, rates stressful events in our lives; it is meant to determine the probability of facing a major health event within the next year.
social readjustment rating scale (SRRS)
Name four health risks associated with high levels of stress.
high blood pressure
What characterizes a maladaptive coping strategy to stress?
failure to remove the stressor or substitution of one stressor for another
What type of coping strategy for stress is characterized by taking direct action through problem solving?
adaptive coping strategy
Positive psychology, founded by Martin Seligman, is the study of optimal functioning; what are the three pillars of this theory?