What is a psychiatrist?
a medical doctor (M.D.) who can prescribe medicine and perform surgery
These individuals have their Ph.D. or Psy.D. and treat patients using a variety of therapeutic approaches.
Counseling psychologists have earned a Ph.D., Ed.D., Psy.D., or M.A. and deal with what types of issues?
Counseling psychologists deal with less severe mental health problems, including marital therapy.
What type of mental health practitioners follow the teaching of Sigmund Freud?
What type of degree do social workers typically hold?
Social workers must earn their Master's degree in social work (M.S.W.).
What current approach is most similar to the beliefs of ancient Greeks, such as Hippocrates and Galen?
2000 years ago, Greek physicians believed psychological problems had physical causes.
a 1950s movement which relocated nonthreatening patients from mental hospitals to community centers
What was the main consequence of deinstitutionalization?
Deinstitutionalization created an increase in the homeless population.
The process of __________ synthesizes the results of several research studies about the same variables.
therapy that treats the mind, not the body
__________ therapies help clients become self-aware of their problems in order to change behavior.
List the five types of insight therapy.
- psychodynamic therapy
- interpersonal psychotherapy
- humanistic client-centered therapy
- Gestalt therapy
According to the psychoanalytic approach, where does abnormal behavior come from?
unconscious internal conflict and early childhood trauma
What is the goal of psychoanalysis?
to give the patient insight by bringing their conflicts into the conscious mind
Describe traits of traditional psychoanalysis.
- several meetings a week for years
- therapist is not visible to client
- free association
- dream interpretation
Asking the patient to say whatever comes to mind without censoring is asking the patient to engage in a psychoanalytic technique called __________.
Define manifest content as it relates to psychoanalysis.
surface information recalled about a dream
Define latent content as it relates to psychoanalysis.
hidden, underlying meaning of content in dreams
In psychoanalytic dream interpretation, the surface information is called the __________ content, while the hidden, underlying meaning is termed the __________ content.
Define resistance as it relates to psychoanalysis.
Resistance is the blocking of feelings or experiences that provoke anxiety.
Projecting emotional feelings onto the psychoanalyst is known as __________.
Define countertransference as it relates to psychoanalysis.
psychoanalyst projects emotional feelings onto the patient
Define catharsis as it relates to psychoanalysis.
the release of emotional tension and anxiety after reliving an emotionally charged experience
How does psychodynamic therapy compare with psychoanalysis?
- is shorter in duration
- occurs less frequently
- invovles the client facing the therapist
- does not stress the importance of childhood trauma
What type of therapy aims to relieve present symptoms by focusing on the patient's current situation?
According to the humanistic approach, where does abnormal behavior come from?
external factors have affected the patient's ability to grow emotionally
What is the goal of humanistic therapy?
to reduce the difference between the ideal self and the real self
Define self-actualization as it relates to humanistic therapy.
the process of fulfilling one's individual potential
Explain how humanistic therapy is non-directive.
Humanistic therapy is client-centered. Non-directive therapy encourages the client to control the therapeutic route.
Define active listening as it relates to humanistic therapy.
Active listening involves echoing, restating, and clarifying what the client says and does.
Define accurate empathic understanding as it relates to humanistic therapy.
therapists try to view the world through the eyes of the client
Humanistic therapy provides an atmosphere of acceptance, known as __________.
unconditional positive regard
Who invented client-centered therapy?
The emphasis on organizing the world in a meaningful way is a principle of __________ psychology.
Describe traits of traditional Gestalt therapy.
discarding of feelings that lack personal meaning
present behavior, feelings, and thoughts
Who created Gestalt therapy?
Sigmund Freud is to psychoanalysis as __________ is to behavioral therapy.
According to the behavioral approach, where does abnormal behavior come from?
reinforcement of maladaptive behavior
What is the goal of behavior therapy?
to replace unwanted behavior with adaptive behavior
How does classical conditioning treat abnormal behavior?
process of creating associations between neutral stimuli and desired responses
Describe the classical conditioning experiment with Little Albert.
conditioned a nine-month-old baby named Albert to fear a rat
Albert wouldn't cry from the sight of the rat, but cried from loud noise
loud noise was played when Baby Albert reached for the rat
Albert eventually cried at sight of the rat
List three types of classical conditioning.
Systematic desensitization, developed by Joseph Wolpe, is a step-by-step type of classical conditioning that associates feared stimuli with __________.
What is an anxiety hierarchy?
a rank of fears associated with a stimulus from least-feared to most-feared
- thinking about a spider
- seeing a picture of a spider
- touching a toy spider
- being in the same room as a real spider
- touching a real spider
Define flooding as it relates to classical conditioning.
exposure technique used to eliminate phobias and anxiety issues
patient directly confronts the stimulus they fear
In an attempt to stop drinking, you take a pill that makes you nauseous only when there is alcohol in your system.
replacing undesired conditioned responses with desired responses
type of classical conditioning
developed by Mary Cover Jones
rewards are used to reinforce target behavior
List two examples of operant conditioning.
small steps are rewarded until the intended goal is achieved
desired behaviors are rewarded with symbolic secondary reinforcers that can be exchanged for valued objects, such as food or money
Social skills training helps people get readjusted to society. List the three steps involved.
Define modeling as it relates to social skills training.
observing socially skilled people to learn acceptable behavior
Define rehearsal as it relates to social skills training.
practicing appropriate behavior through role-playing
Define shaping as it relates to social skills training.
reinforcing and giving feedback about behavior
According to the cognitive approach, where does abnormal behavior come from?
irrational and flawed thought patterns
What is the goal of cognitive therapy?
cognitive restructuring, or the process of correcting faulty thoughts and replacing them with positive, realistic thoughts
In Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), treatment involves confronting absurd thoughts about the client's ABCs.
What are the ABCs?
beliefs about actions
consequences of beliefs
What is the tyranny of the "shoulds" and how do cognitive therapists treat it?
Individuals engage in absurd or unrealistic behavior because they believe they must
Therapists challenge the client's belief so in defending it, he or she will recognize the absurdity
__________ created Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy, while __________ developed the cognitive triad.
Albert Ellis; Aaron Beck
The cognitive triad examines what a person thinks about his or her __________, __________, and __________.
self; world; future
How does Martin Seligman relate the cognitive triad to depression?
Individuals with depression believe they caused the negative events, the events will affect everything they do, and will last forever.
Define dichotomous thinking as it relates to cognitive therapy.
creating all-or-none conceptions of scenarios
Define arbitrary inferences as they relate to cognitive therapy.
conclusion drawn without evidence
According to the biological approach, where does abnormal behavior come from?
a chemical imbalance of hormones or neurotransmitters; possibly genetic
What is the goal of psychopharmacotherapy?
Psychotropic drugs are used to restore chemical balance and treat mental disorders.
What do psychopharmacologists do to counter the effects of drug tolerance?
It is necessary to supplement biomedical treatment with therapy if a patient builds a tolerance to the drug.
List the four types of psychotropic drugs.
tranquilizers and antianxiety drugs that contain benzodiazepines, which increase the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA
What disorders are anxiolytics used to treat?
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
generalized anxiety disorder
elevate mood by making monoamine neurotransmitters, such as serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine more available
monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
Paxil, Prozac, Zoloft, Lexapro
- Paxil, Prozac, Zoloft, Lexapro
What disorders are antidepressants used to treat?
post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
psychoactive drugs that increase activity of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine
What disorders are stimulants used to treat?
attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
antipsychotics that reduce psychological tension, stop hallucinations and delusions, improve sleep, and produce appropriate behavior by blocking dopamine receptors
What disorders are neuroleptics used to treat?
What drug is used to treat bipolar disorder?
What are the symptoms of tardive dyskinesia?
Tardive dyskinesia, a possible symptom of neuroleptics, leaves people with difficulty walking and involuntary muscle spasms.
Define electroconvulsive shock treatment (ECT) as it relates to psychopharmacotherapy.
Patients, while under anesthesia, receive an electric shock. Sometimes causing temporary memory loss, ECT is a last resort for treating major depression.
How is repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) different from electroconvulsive shock treatment?
Although both procedures treat depression, rTMS is:
- pulses travel through magnetic coil attached to area above right eyebrow
- given daily
What is a prefrontal lobotomy?
popular during 1935-1955
psychosurgery (removal of brain tissue)
cut neural tracts connecting lower brain regions to frontal lobes
treat violent schizophrenia
patients left impassive
List examples of issues community psychologists help clients cope with.
child abuse prevention
List four advantages of group therapy, as compared with individual therapy.
meet people with similar issues
less verbal patients can open up
input from both therapist and other group members
What is the main goal of both couples and family therapy?
improving communication in relationships
A peer support group where sessions are led by the group members themselves is known as a __________.
Name an example of a self-help group.