Flashcards in Expansion and contraction of the empire (13) Deck (34)
Start of the mandates? (WW1)
Treaty of Versailles of 1919 stripped Germany of its colonies
Distributed among the allies at the Treaty of San Remo in 1920
Ottoman Empire stripped of its colonies in the Treaty of Sevres 1920 and the Treaty of Lausanne 1923
Views of the mandates? (WW1)
Woodrow Wilson pushed for 'self determination'
Britain and France said the former colonies were underdeveloped
The mandates were a compromise as they were aimed for self-rule
Category system setup, A,B and C
Britain and France ruled their mandates as they did their colonies
British share of Mandates (WW1)
Mandates brought 1,800,000 square miles under British control and 13 million new subjects
Gained Palestine, Transjordan, Mesopotamia, parts of Cameroon, Togo and Tanganyika
New Zealand got Western Samoa
Australia gained New Guinea
Union of South Africa gained South-West Africa
Nauru became a combined mandate of Britain, Australia and New Zealand
Persia came under British control in a one-sided 1919 treaty
Evidence of mandates being imperialist (WW1)
December 1918 'khaki' election brought the wartime coalition back with Balfour, Curzon and Milner
Sykes-Picot agreement of 1915 decided on the split up of Middle-East
Pros and Cons of Mesopotamia (WW1)
Overland pathway from Suez Canal to Asian Markets and India - 'Middle-East Empire' - strategic importance
Oil rich - economic importance
Took 14,000 troop garrison to defend
Arab rebellion in June 1920 had to be suppressed by force - due to wartime promises of independence
Loss of Mesopotamia (WW1)
Britain ruled it as a mandate for 12 years from 1920
Nationalist movements led to independence in October 1932 under King Faisal I
Retained rights to military and air force bases by the terms of the British-Iraqi Treaty 1930
Pros and Cons of Palestine (WW1)
Land was main route to India and in close proximity to Suez Canal
13,000 police officers
£9 million per year to garrison
Early problems of Palestine (WW1)
Turkish forced conscription and seized crops making them very nationalist
British had promised independence during war to keep them fighting the Turkish - T.E Lawrence was crucial to supporting the rebellions in 1917-1918
British only rewarded them with the Arabian Desert whilst the British created a Middle Eastern Empire
Balfour Declaration (WW1)
1917 - Arthur Balfour writes to Walter Rothschild
Promised British support for a Zionist 'Homeland' for Jews in Palestine
Attempt to win support from the anti-imperialist Americans
Consequences of the Balfour Declaration (WW1)
Zionist Commission setup 1918 - Muslims and Christians then form the Muslim-Christian Association
Violent clashes between 1918 and 1920
Religious disputes in 1929 over 'Wailing Wall'
Revolt in 1936
Mandate system charged Britain with keeping law and order = 13,000 police officers
Jewish immigration (WW1)
60,000 in 1918
175,000 by 1931
Still only 17.7% of population - could not create a 'homeland'
Churchill's role in Britain's defence after WW1
Committee of National Expenditure wanted to slash spending by £75-£150 million - mostly came from armed forces
February 1921 Churchill becomes Colonial Secretary and tasked to sort out Middle-East expenses
Churchill believed the RAF could do the job faster and cheaper
1921 - took 3 weeks for the RAF to bomb the Dervish army into submission - cost £3 million (today) - cheap conflict - only took one squadron and 3,000 locally raised troops
Empire's defence after WW1
Empire should of been able to defend itself after WW1 but government could not afford to keep Western Front Army standing and thus cut it to a thin stretched 200,000 in 1922 - real fears of revolts if they didn't happened on a small scale in England in France when they weren't dismissed immediately
Egypt after WWI
Granted formal independence although remained as a client state until 1954
British troops withdrew in 1936 when the Anglo-Egyptian treaty was signed - British could still defend Suez Canal
Canada's contribution to the First World War
480,000 troops - conscription 1917 - led to riots in March 1918 in Quebec City by French Canadians who saw it as a British affair
Supplied a third of British Army munitions in France from 1917 to 1918
Applauded for their bravery at Vimy Ridge April 1917
Effects of WW1 on Canada?
War boom on economy - slump after war led to a 27% drop in living standards over the next four years
Saw the mandates as reckless imperialism, not in the interest of the dominions
Split between English and French Canadians for equality vs independence
1921 Liberal Prime Minister Mackenzie King wants equal sovereignty - took demand to 1926 Imperial conference
India's contribution to WW1?
1.3 million troops + £214,000
£100 million in 1917 alone
Supplied 1/3 of troops on the Western Front in Autumn 1914
War career was less successful than White Dominions
Effects of WW1 on India?
Indian Congress stress their contribution and desire for Indian Independence
Montagu promised more 'responsible government' in August 1917
South African contribution to WW1?
40,000 in Africa + 136,000 in the Middle-East and on the Western Front
Effects of WW1 on SA?
1921 - poor whites estimated 150,000
1920 huge drop in agricultural prices from artificial war prices
Increasing cost of gold production + fixed price of gold (until 1933)
- March 1922, white to black workers ratio is scrapped and a strike develops, troops sent in and 200 killed, number of white miners cut by 3000
Nationalist movement in SA post WW1
Republican movement led by Hertzog
People resented 'English War'
Became Prime Minister in 1924
Brought his concept of 'Independent States' to 1926 Imperial Conference - convinced other Dominions to follow - Canada did due to desire for 'equality'
Britain rejected the word 'independent' but was ready to grant external autonomy and constitutional equality
Begininning of Statute of Westminster
How did Ireland become a Dominion?
April 1916 Dublin Easter Rising - execution of those captured created martyrs
Guerilla Warfare until 1921 with Anglo-Irish Treaty
New Catholic Irish Free State was setup and given 'Canadian Dominion Status'
In return for external autonomy they accepted the Crown as the Head of State and were still part of the Empire Commonwealth
Achieved full independence at the 1931 Statute of Westminster - only Dominion not to promise to come to Britain's aid in war.
Effect of WW2 on the Empire in South East Asia
February 1942 - seized Singapore - Britain's main naval port in the region and the largest surrender in British history
By the summer of 1942, after capturing Burma and Hong Kong the Japanese seemed ready to attack India but the attack failed in 1944
30,000 Indian Troops captured in Singapore would join the Indian National Army to rid India of Britain, led by Bose in 1943 they fought against the British in Burma
The Burmese Independence Leader Aung San under the guidance of the Japanese formed the Burma Independence Army
WW2 in North Africa?
Stalemate in the North of Africa between British and German troops (led by Rommel) which was only decided by the battle of El Alamein in November 1942 where British interests in Africa and the oil rich Middle East were secured
Causes for the British Withdrawal from India and the Middle East?
- Economic difficulties
- Labour Government of 1945 under Clement Attlee
- Independence movements
Britain's approach to Inter-war India?
Pushing for reforms but dealing with any nationalist attempts to create resistance ruthlessly
Brought about the Rowlatt Act of 1919 - authorities had powers to arrest and imprison without trial anyone who attempted challenge British rule
Was counter productive as seen with the aftermath of the Amritsar Massacre 1919
Britain reverted to 'divide and rule' playing the All India Muslim League against the Hindu Congress Movement
India and WW2?
Nationalism suspended in 1939 with support for Britain
British defeats in South East Asia in 1942 rehashed issues in the Hindu Congress
The Indian National Army emerged
Britain became worried and cracked down on Congress, making arrests and favouring the Muslim League
In March 1942, Churchill sent Sir Stafford Cripps to India to promise full Dominion Status
This was see as not enough by the nationalists and so in August 1942 Gandhi began his 'Quit India' Campaign
Ghandi and others were arrested for the duration of the war
Reasons for withdrawal from India?
The post-war Labour government concluded it was no longer and feasible because:
- Trying to keep India would lead to widespread violent resistance which would absorb military resources
- The INA and strong nationalism meant that the Indian Army may not be reliable and British troops would have to be deployed whilst Britain was financially exhausted
- India was no longer the great cotton market it had once been
Process of withdrawal from India?
1947 - Government sent a new Viceroy, Lord Mountbatten
He was given instructions to bring about Indian independence ASAP, no later than June 1948
April-May 1947 decided to partition India with independence for both states by 15th August 1947
Deadline met but there was major violence as people fled to their respective religious states
At least 1 million people died
Loss of Burma?
The Anti-Fascist Organisation supported the Japanese against the British in the Second World War
Soon realised a British Burma would bring about independence and changed sides in 1944
British Governor Sir Dorman-Smith was restored after Japanese liberation and was determined to put physical reconstruction before political reform
The AFO changed into a resistance force and became the Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League (AFPFL) in 1945
Lord Mountbatten recognised the strength of the support of Aung San so in September 1945 he incorporated the Burma National Army into a new army for the country
In September 1946 the country was becoming increasingly ungovernable so Sir Hurbert Rance took over as Governor
He placed Aung San onto the Executive Council and gave him free reign to govern it
In December 1946 Clement Atlee, Prime Minister, confirmed that British Troops would not be committed to impose British authority
Burma became independent in 1948
Problems in Palestine?
Influx of Jews as a result of anti-jewish policies in Europe and the eventual holocaust
By 1945 the deteriorating Arab-Jewish relations led to a migration cap
International pressure however (especially from America) came in favour of Jewish settlement due to their persecution by the Nazi's
Britain however needed to have both good relations with America and with the local Arabs for oil interests in the Middle East
Violent anti-British Jewish attacks meant Britain had to police a country, leading to the deaths of 330 British Soldiers from 1945, during the financial burden after the Second World War
Britain had spent in excess of £100 million on governing Palestine from January 1945 to the withdrawal
British withdrawal from Palestine
Britain was facing a difficult decision of how to rule Palestine so referred the question to the UN in February 1947 who favoured, after pressure from the US, a partition into Arab and Jewish states
Britain decided it did not want to alienate the Arab World who were opposed to the partition and declared its intention to withdraw in September 1947, leaving by May 1948
Dominion support of WW1?
Andrew Fisher Australian PM– ‘give our last man and our last shilling to the War effort’
Led to desire for concessions for supporting the war