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Flashcards in first test #1 Deck (45):
1

3 components of the glomerular capillary wall from inside out

1. endothelial cells (with fenestra)2. Glomular basement membrane3. Visceral epithelial cells

2

glucose renal threshold is 160-180 mg/dl

maximum range of glaucoma reabsorption in the renal tubule

3

aldsosterone is for _____ reabsorption and is released by the the ______ _____

sodium, zona glomerulosa (adrenal cortex)

4

releases the trigger for angiotensin II

aldosterone

5

order of cellular cast degradation

cellular >granular>waxy

6

indicates cholecystitis

murphey's sign

7

green brown urine usually indicates

cholecystits (positive murphy's sign)

8

urine dark with yellow foam

Icterus/jaundice

9

presence of bilirubin in urine

Liver or gallbladder disease

10

elevated level of conjugated serum bilirubin implies

liver disease or cholestatic disease

11

Direct bilirubin is soluble in water (conjugated)

true

12

Bilirubin+albumin is unconjugated

non water soluble

13

bilirubin comes from the breakdown of

hemoglobin

14

what increases urobilnogen

hemolytic anemia

15

ketones + suger =

diabetes mellitus

16

down regulation of receptors is usually an issue for

diabetes mellitus

17

______ are made by the liver for ____ metabolism

ketones, fat

18

Renin is release by the______ of the kidney is response to volume _____

juxtaglomerular, depletion

19

what is a precursor to angiotensinogen

Renin

20

sudden onset of severe pain originating at the flank and radiating inferiorly and anteriorly

renal colic

21

Ca Oxalate and amophous crystals are found in ___ PH ruine and in ______ solute concentration

low (below 7), high

22

renal colic what test should be positive

murphy's punch

23

Ca Oxalate crystals can indicate

Kidney stones

24

drinking alcohol puts one at greater risk for

kidney stones

25

ADH works at the _______ of the kidney

Cortical collecting tubule and the collecting duct

26

signs of pyelonephritis (infection)

increase wbcs, painful urination, no sexual activity

27

Glomerulonephritis

inflammation of kidney not associated with infection

28

Most likely bacteria of UTI

e.coli

29

what ph of urine is optimal for e.coli

7.24 (7+ to survive)

30

high specific gravity with, cholesterol crystals, fatty/ waxy casts, with lots of edema and ascites

nephrotic syndrome

31

_______ is commonly associated with nephrotic syndrome in adults

glomerulonephritis

32

cannot metabolize branch chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine, valine)

maple syrup urine disease

33

alport syndrome

glomerulonephritis, manifested by nephritic syndrome

34

spenomegaly, hepatomegaly are associated with

alport syndrome

35

ADH is produced in the ______ and released by _____

hypothalamus, posterior pituitary

36

Diabetes insipidous

polyuria, insufficient ADH, low specific gravity due to frequency of urination

37

most common cause of metabolic alkalosis

vomiting (loss of H+)

38

rbc casts, mild to moderate proteinurea, and no pitting edema...

nephritic syndrome

39

fatty casts 3.4 or more grams of protein and pitting edema

nephrotic syndrome

40

ADH is made in the ______ and released from the _____

hypothalamus, post. pituitary

41

Usually found with UTIs

triple phosphate

42

GMN signs

proetinuria, hematuria, darker urine, edema, hypertension, oliguria

43

uncontrolled DM, what is the immediate threat?

GMN

44

ketones with absence of glucose but not dieting ____ must be considered in the diff diagnosis

cancer

45

elevated HCG levels in 24 hour urine specimen may indicate what?

pregnancy