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Flashcards in first test examination of crystals 2 Deck (23):
1

found in acidic urine, typically with a urinepH

cystine

2

occur in the sediment of patients with Cystinuria, agenetic defect in renal cystine transport

cystine crystals

3

most frequent cause of kidneystones in children

cystine crystals can for staghorn calculi

4

• Dissolves in– HCl– NaOH– Ammonium hydroxide• Insoluble in– Acetic acid– Alcohol– Ether• Confirmatory test Nitroprusside Reaction (Acetest)

cystine

5

Is found in severe liver disorders in which amino acidmetabolism is impaired and associated withtyrosinemia

tyrosine

6

The presence of ______ is usuallyaccompanied by a positive biochemical testfor bilirubin and are often accompanied bythe presence of leucine crystals in the sediment.

tyrosine crystals

7

• Polarizes light• Dissolves in:– HCl– NaOH– And when heated• Insoluble in:– Acetic acid– Alcohol– Ether

tyrosine

8

Could also indicate Maple Syrup Disease

leucine

9

The presence of leucine crystals is often accompanied by apositive biochemical test for bilirubin and is oftenaccompanied by tyrosine crystals in the same sediment.Indicates liver disease

leucine

10

Yellow, oily-looking spheres with striations and a thick outerboarder.Can resemble “grapefruit sections”

leucine

11

Dissolves in:– NaOH– And when heated• Insoluble in:– Acetic acid– HCl– Ether

leucine

12

• Is formed in acidic pH of urine• Free fat from degradation of renal tubular epithelial cells• May be present in cases of glomerulonephritisthe Nephrotic Syndrome.

cholesterol

13

cholesterol crystals are accompanied by

Cholesterol crystals are accompanied by:a positive biochemical test for proteinoval fat bodies,fatty casts,free fat droplets in the sediment

14

• Weak birefringence• Dissolves in:– Chloroform– Ether– Hot alcohol• Insoluble in:– Dilute acids– Dilute alkali

cholesterol

15

Bilirubin crystals are seen in several ____ ____

hepatic disorders.

16

Is formed in acidic urine• Yellow-brown needles or granules.• They are frequently attached to the surface of cells

bilirubin

17

• Dissolve in:– Acetic acid– HCl– NaOH– Acetone– Chloroform– Ether• Insoluble in:– Alcohol

bilirubin

18

Iatrogenic Origin

Drugs• Supplements• Radiologic Contrast Media

19

Are formed in acidic pH• Could result in renal damage while precipitating out in thenephron

Sulfonamide Drugs

20

Confirmatory test – Lignin test

sulfonamides

21

Confusing Artifacts

Starch• Talc• Glass fragments

22

Polarize light into Maltese cross but without the outer edgeresembling “crushed diamonds

starch

23

summary

Urinary crystals may be present in acidic or alkalineurine.• Urinary crystals may be of no significance or mayaccompany metabolic disorders.• Microscopic evaluation of urine is important fordetection of crystals, because no chemical testdetects the presence of crystals.• Solubility studies and the use of polarized andcompensated light help to identify crystals anddifferentiate them from artifacts.