UA conditions Test #2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in UA conditions Test #2 Deck (64):
1

Fatigue headaches fever exertional dyspnea

all anemias

2

Acute blood loss anemia PP

accident or internal hemorrhage

3

Acute blood loss anemia Blood test

normochromicmacrocytosispoikilosytosisnucleated rbireticulocytesincreases WBCs (neutrophils)anisocytosisdecreased platelets"norma makes peter nut really intense all day"

4

Chronic blood loss anemia PP

slow internal bleeding (not noticed until iron depleted)

5

Chronic blood loss anemia blood test

MicrocyticHypochromicincreased plateletsleukopenia

6

Iron deficient anemia PP

currently pregnant, young child growing fastPICAassociated with ulcers and gastrectomy

7

Iron deficient S&S

PICAParesthesiaBurning tongueAngular stomatitis (cracking mouth in corners)GastritisDysphagiaSpooning nails"Peter's penis burns all day, got syphilis"

8

Iron deficient Anemia BT

Decrease MCV Decrease MCHC Decrease HCT (hematocrit)microcyticnormal WBCHypochromicAnisocytosis Poikilocytes

9

Iron depletion

loss exceeds intakemobilized iron storage

10

Iron deficient erythropoeisis

decreased serum ferrite'ssaturated transfurens

11

megaloblastic anemia

pernicious anemiafolate deficient anemia

12

pernicious anemia PP

numbness or tingling in distal extremitydifficulty walkingepisodic abdominal paingastroectomyA vegantapworm

13

Pernicious anemia S&S

atrophic glossitis (sore, raw pale)episodic abdominal painPallesthesia loss of vibratory sensationsUMNL (paresthesia)post column-pins/needles in distal extremitylat column- weakness, spastic

14

Pernicious anemia blood test

increased MCVdecreased hematocritnormochromicmacrocyticPoikilocytesovalcytesphlimsy RBC

15

normal iron problem with dna synth.

pernicious anemia

16

only vitamin exclusive to microorganismsstored in liverdepleted in people with gastroectomy or vegan

B12

17

Treatment of pernicious anemia

intraMuscular injection of B12

18

FOLATE DEFICIENCYPP

formeruser of alcoholpregnantw/ fatiguenormalB12Heatfood or use powder milkvegans

19

FOLATE DEFICIENCY BT

↓ Serum FolateB12 normalPlatletsnormalWBCnormal

20

STOREDin LIVERformedby intestinal bacteria

folate

21

deficiency in folate

Heat foodsPowdered MilkGoats Milk

22

APLASTIC ANEMIAPP

bloodtest with pancytopenia (decrease in all blood cells)nose/ gum bleedingInfection

23

APLASTIC ANEMIA SS

bleedingfrom the gumsnosebleeds frequent↑susceptibility to infection

24

Aplastic Anemia BT

NormocytesThrombocytopeniaLeucocytopenia↑serum feritanNormochromicB12 & Folic acid normal

25

BoneMarrow production problem2 WAYS:

1) Direct Destruction of Hematocrit[Drugs (chlorophenical), radiation, virus, hepatitis, Epsteinbarr]2) ImmuneComplexMediated Destruction of Marrow Cells

26

Aplastic Anemia

BoneMarrow Transplant

27

Hemolytic Anemias

Intrinsic and extrinsic formsoften leasts to Gallstones

28

Hemolytic intrinsic

IntrinsicFormproblemw/ membrane, metabolic, or hemoglobin disorder

29

Hemolytic extrinsic

ExtrinsicForm factorsoutside the RBC (aquired)***MC cause: malaria

30

Renal Insufficiency Anemia

↓ ErythropoietinBUNpresent↑ Hemolysis↑ Urobilinogen levels

31

Liver Disease Anemia

↓ production & survival of RBC↑ Blood volume.↑ ReticulocytesPlateletsnormalLeucocytesnormalNormo&Macrocytic

32

spur cells are associated with

cirrhosis

33

cirrhosis anemia

↑ CholesterolPhospholids normal (trapped in spleen & destroyed)

34

Hypothyroidism [Endocrine]

NOReticulocytestestosteronedeficientcy (low RBC production)Normo–cyte & chromic↓cortisol

35

Bone Marrow Infiltration

Leukemia,Lymphoma, Mets, MM, Red marrow replaced

36

Hereditary Spherocytosis PP

youngchild w/ jaundicesplenomegalyIncreaseurobilinogenbrownstool

37

Hereditary Spherocytosis S&S

↑ Urobilinogen in urineJaundiceBrownStoolspleenomegalyMacrocyticcells (lyses when going through capillary)

38

Hereditary Spherocytosis BT

increased Neutrophils w/ shift to left↑ Reticulocytes↑ MCHCNORMALMCVThrombocytesNormo/Giant PlateletsMacrocytic

39

Hereditary Spherocytosis treatment

Spleenectomy

40

*** Occurs from a SUBSTITUTION of VALINE for Glutamine at the 6 th Postion on Beta ChainIRREVERSABLE↓O 2

Sickle Cell Disease

41

Problem w/ Bone Marrow Hyperplasia(ulcer in leg)

Sickle cell disease

42

sickle cell disease PP

AfricanAmerican decentswellingin dorsum of hand & footDecreasedO2Periostitis

43

sickle cell disease S&S

Normo–cytic & chromicPeriostitis(before age 4) &hand& feet syndrome (swelling on dorsal side)Spleen Triad1) blood pooling2) spleenomegaly & hypovolemic shoke3) Functional Asplenia ( blocked RE filters)

44

Sickle cell Blood test

Howard Jolly Bodies (remnants of chromatin of RBC)TargetCellsSickleCellsTripanocytes

45

Problemnot making on polypeptide chain at the same rate as the other***MC are Alpha & Beta chainsDestabilizesthe RBC

Thalassemiaaka [Medditeranean, Cooley's Anemia]

46

Thalassemia PP

European decentDelayed pubertyprominent jawmongoloid appearance

47

Thalassemia Blood Test

Extreme PoikilocytesHoward Jolly Bodies↓ MCVMicrocyticHypochromicOvalcytesTarget Cells

48

**Beta Major thalassemia

Iron overloadJaundiceLeg ulcerationSplenomegaly

49

thalassemia treatments

Minor(none needed)Major(blood transfusion, splenoectomy)

50

Metabolic Hemolysis

deficit in enzyme activity of RBCInherited

51

Metabolic Hemolysis lack of

Lacking:pyruvate kinaseglycolytic enzymesmitochondriaG6P DehydrogenasePyramidine 5 Nucleotidase

52

(group of diseases that cuase cancer in Lymphnodes)(usually B &T cells)

NonHodgkin’sLymphoma

53

NonHodgkin’sLymphoma S&S

-Slow progressive-Painless Lymphoadenopathy (pathological lymphnodes)-one or widespread-Night Sweats-Located retroperitoneal, pelvic, abdominal areas-seen on Xray (dense white masses)-further tested by CT & Xrays-Mediastinal (behind sternum)-Edemain the Face-ureteralblockages (oliguria)-anemia (bone marrow infiltration)

54

NonHodgkin’sLymphoma lab study

Normal

55

diagnosis for non hodgkin's

chest X-ray

56

***Greatest Age risk (15-35yrs)***painless mass in neck

Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

57

ReedSternbergCells in lab tests

Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

58

Hodgkin’s Lymphoma PP

painless mass in neck (made painful by alcohol consumption)Intense itching over the bodydifficulty swallowing

59

Hodgkin's S&S

***Ivory Vertebra***Spinal Cord Compression***Horner’s syndromeleg edematracheal blockagearises in one node, then metastasis

60

leukemia Chronic vs acute

chronic- normocytic normochomicacute- pancytopenia, circulating leukoblasts

61

CLL

90% >50 years oldincidental discoveryisolated lymphocytesmalignancy of B lymphocytes

62

CML

young middle aged adults

63

ALL

80% of all childhood leukemia3-7 y/oquick onsetlymph swelling

64

AML

few months old or 60+ yearsBone marrow swelling