H&N 3.1 blood vessels Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in H&N 3.1 blood vessels Deck (48)
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what are the MAJOR blood vessels of the neck?

-common carotid artery
-internal jugular vein
-external jugular vein


Where does the thyrocewrvical trunk branch from?

The subclavian artery


Other than the thyrocervical trunk, what other branches come from the subclavian artery in the neck?

-vertebral arteries
-internal thoracic artery


What are the branches of the thyrocervical trunk?

ascending and transverse cervical arteries

inferior thyroid artery



How do the vertebral arteries travel into the head?1

Via the transverse foreamina of the cervical vertebrae.


Whats the function of the vertebral arteries?

Blood supply to the brain (along with the ICA)


How does the ICA get into the skull?

Via the carotid canal.


At what level is hthe bifurcation of the common carotid artery?

the superior border of the thyroid cartilage.


Under what muscle does the common carotid run, and what vessel is found next to it?
What side?

Internal jugular vein runs laterally to it.


What is the carotid sinus?
What does it contain?

a swelling found on the internal carotid artery just after the bifurcation. Here you find stretch receptors known as baroreceptors.


What is the carotid body?

the location of peripheral chemoreceptors involved in control of O2.


What's clinically relevant about the bifurcation of the carotid artery?

It is a common site for atheroma, which could lead to embolus formation and therefore a stroke/TIA.


what is contained within the carotid sheath?

common carotid artery,
Internal jugular vein
Vagus nerve
deep cervical lymph nodes


the carotid triangle is a subdivision of which larger triangle in the neck?

The anterior triangle


What are the borders of the carotid triangle?

superior- posterior belly of diagastric
lateral- sternocleidomastoid
medial- superior belly of omohyoid.


What are the contents of the carotid triangle?

The bifurcation of the common cartid artery
Internal jugular vein


Why is the carotid triangle of clinical significance?

- access to the IJV and carotid arteries
-can access the vagus and hypoglossal nerves
-can feel carotid pulse
-carotid sinus massage


What is the carotid sinus massage?

Used when someone is tachycardic, you gently massage the carotid artery at the area of the carotid sinus. The baroreceptos interpret this as high blood pressure so decrease the heart rate accordingly.


When can you not do a carotid massage?

If someone is suspected to have atherosclerosis, it could lead to a thromboembolism and a stroke.


What are the branches of the external carotid artery?

-superior thyroid
-ascending pharyngeal
-posterior auricular
-superficial temporal


What are the 2 terminal branches of the external carotid artery?

-superficial temporal


What are the 5 arteries associated with blood supply to the scalp? where do these originate from?

-occipital, posterior auricular, superficial temporal (branches of the ECA)

-supra-orbital, supra-trochlea (branches of the ICA)


What are the layers of the scalp in order?

-connective tissue (dense)
-aponeurosis (of the frontal and occipital)
-loose connective tissue


Where do the vessels of the scalp run?

In the subcutaneous, dense connective tissue layer


Why do laceration to the scalp lead to profuse bleeding?

-many anastamoses so rich blood supply
-if aponeurosis is involved, pulls apart and prevents contraction of the blood vessels
-walls of arteries closely attached to the connective tissue, so cannot constrict as much.


Will a laceration to the sclap affect blood flow to the skull?

No, the skull is supplied mainly by the middle meningeal artery, a branch on the ICA.


How do superficial veins drain the scalp?

Via following the arteries


how do the supra-trochlea and supra-orbital vein drain?

unite at medial angle of the eye to form the angular vein, which drains into the facial vein.


Name some venous sinus' of the head?

-cavernous sinus
-superior saggital sinus
-sigmoid sinus
-transverse sinus


how are veins of the scalp and dural venous sinus' connected?

Via emmissary veins, which are valveless so allow blood to flow whichever way pressure permits. This allows for potential spread of infection.

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