Flashcards in H&N 3.1 blood vessels Deck (48)
what are the MAJOR blood vessels of the neck?
-common carotid artery
-internal jugular vein
-external jugular vein
Where does the thyrocewrvical trunk branch from?
The subclavian artery
Other than the thyrocervical trunk, what other branches come from the subclavian artery in the neck?
-internal thoracic artery
What are the branches of the thyrocervical trunk?
ascending and transverse cervical arteries
inferior thyroid artery
How do the vertebral arteries travel into the head?1
Via the transverse foreamina of the cervical vertebrae.
Whats the function of the vertebral arteries?
Blood supply to the brain (along with the ICA)
How does the ICA get into the skull?
Via the carotid canal.
At what level is hthe bifurcation of the common carotid artery?
the superior border of the thyroid cartilage.
Under what muscle does the common carotid run, and what vessel is found next to it?
Internal jugular vein runs laterally to it.
What is the carotid sinus?
What does it contain?
a swelling found on the internal carotid artery just after the bifurcation. Here you find stretch receptors known as baroreceptors.
What is the carotid body?
the location of peripheral chemoreceptors involved in control of O2.
What's clinically relevant about the bifurcation of the carotid artery?
It is a common site for atheroma, which could lead to embolus formation and therefore a stroke/TIA.
what is contained within the carotid sheath?
common carotid artery,
Internal jugular vein
deep cervical lymph nodes
the carotid triangle is a subdivision of which larger triangle in the neck?
The anterior triangle
What are the borders of the carotid triangle?
superior- posterior belly of diagastric
medial- superior belly of omohyoid.
What are the contents of the carotid triangle?
The bifurcation of the common cartid artery
Internal jugular vein
Why is the carotid triangle of clinical significance?
- access to the IJV and carotid arteries
-can access the vagus and hypoglossal nerves
-can feel carotid pulse
-carotid sinus massage
What is the carotid sinus massage?
Used when someone is tachycardic, you gently massage the carotid artery at the area of the carotid sinus. The baroreceptos interpret this as high blood pressure so decrease the heart rate accordingly.
When can you not do a carotid massage?
If someone is suspected to have atherosclerosis, it could lead to a thromboembolism and a stroke.
What are the branches of the external carotid artery?
What are the 2 terminal branches of the external carotid artery?
What are the 5 arteries associated with blood supply to the scalp? where do these originate from?
-occipital, posterior auricular, superficial temporal (branches of the ECA)
-supra-orbital, supra-trochlea (branches of the ICA)
What are the layers of the scalp in order?
-connective tissue (dense)
-aponeurosis (of the frontal and occipital)
-loose connective tissue
Where do the vessels of the scalp run?
In the subcutaneous, dense connective tissue layer
Why do laceration to the scalp lead to profuse bleeding?
-many anastamoses so rich blood supply
-if aponeurosis is involved, pulls apart and prevents contraction of the blood vessels
-walls of arteries closely attached to the connective tissue, so cannot constrict as much.
Will a laceration to the sclap affect blood flow to the skull?
No, the skull is supplied mainly by the middle meningeal artery, a branch on the ICA.
How do superficial veins drain the scalp?
Via following the arteries
how do the supra-trochlea and supra-orbital vein drain?
unite at medial angle of the eye to form the angular vein, which drains into the facial vein.
Name some venous sinus' of the head?
-superior saggital sinus