repro 3.2 menstrual dysfunction Flashcards Preview

Skye's ESA 4 > repro 3.2 menstrual dysfunction > Flashcards

Flashcards in repro 3.2 menstrual dysfunction Deck (45):
1

From when does the proliferative phase occur?

From the onset of menses to ovulation.

2

What's the order of the blood vessels found within the uterine wall?

uterine artery
radial arteries
arcuate arteries
straight arteries
spiral arteries

3

How long is the average menstrual cycle?

21-35 days

4

What's the average volume of blood lost per cycle?

37-48 ml/cycle

5

Whats the name given to heavy periods?

Menorrhagia

6

What are some cuases of menorhagia?

fibroids
abnormal clotting
cancer
progesterone contraception
the coil (IUCD)

7

What are fibroids?

Benign growths of fibrous and muscular tissue that develop in and around the uterus.

8

What are some types of fibroids?

intracavitary
intramural
submucosal
subserosal
pedunculated

9

What does DUB stand for?

Dysfunctional uterine bleeding

10

What is dysfunctional uterine bleeding?

heavy bleeding ewith no recognisable pathology or bleeding disorders. It's a diagnosis based off the exclusion of other pathology.

11

syggest a method of reducing uterine bleeding.

endomtrial ablation, using a laser to singe some of the blood vessels.

12

What's a long term fix for treatment of menorrhagia?

removal of the uterus, but should only be considered in women who are sure they dont want any more children.

13

What's a major cause irregular bleeding?

contraceptives

14

What's ammenorrhoea?

Abscence of periods.

15

What are the different classifications of ammenorrhoea?

Primary- never had a period
secondary- eg had periods before but have since stopped

16

What are some causes of secondary ammenorrhoea?

pregnancy
weight loss
some contraceptives
PCOS
Menopause
pituitary tumours
certain drugs, eg for cancer.
severe stress

17

What broad impacts can menstrual disorders have?

physical- eg anaemia, tiredness

psychological-depression, anxiety, mood swings, irritability

Social- sports, swimming

18

Whats is dysmenorrhoea?

Painful periods

19

What is oligomenorrhoea?

irregular periods more than 35 days apart

20

What is PMS?

pre-menstrual syndrome- physical and emotional symptoms experiences during the second half of the cycle, so a week or so before menses which can lead to irritability, mood swings, breast tenderness, bloated, headaches, sleep problems etc.

21

What is primary ammenorrhoea?

the absense of menses without secondary characteristics by 14, or with secondary characteristics by the age of 16.

22

What's the definition of seondary ammenorrhoea?

ceasing of menses, for more than 3 months in a woman who has regular periods, or 9 months in a woman who has irregular periods.

23

What are the 3 broad causes of primary amenorrhoea?

-problems with the outflow tract
-problems with the gonad/end organs
-problems with the hypothalamus/ pituitary.

24

What are some causes of outflow obstruction causing primary ammenorrhoea?

-mullerian agenesis,
-vaginal atresia
-imperforate hymen

25

What is Asherman's syndrome?

-fibrosis of the endometrium leading to lack of hormonal control response.

26

What is an outflow obstruction cause of secondary amenorrhoea?

Asherman's syndrome.

27

What are some ovarian/end organ causes of primary amenorrhoea?

-ovarian dysgenesis (eg Turners syndrome)
-androgen insensitivity
-FSH/LH receptor insensitivity
-congenital adrenal hyperplasia

28

What does hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism mean?

The gonads are underdevelopped, or have diminished functioning, which leads to less oestrogen production, so less negative feedback, causing an increase in the release of FSH and LH (hypergonadotrophic)

29

What happens in androgen insensitivity?

This is a condition of males, XY genotype, but the receptors for androgens including testosterone dont work. This causes lack of masculinisation of the external genitalia so the child will be phenotypically male, but will not have a uterus, ovaries etc.

30

What are some ovarian/end organ causes of secondary amneorrhoea?

-PCOS
-pregnancy
-menopause

31

What are some hypothalamic/pituitary causes of primary amenorhoea?

-Kallman's syndrome

32

What is Kallmann's syndrome?

There is a chromosomal abnormality leading to malfomraiton of the hypothalamus.

33

What are some hypothalamic causes of secondary amenorrhoea?

-excersize amenorrhoea
-stress ammenorrhoea
-weight related (eg anorexia nervosa)

34

What are some pituitary causes of secondary amenorrhoea?

-Sheehan's syndrome
-Hyperprolactinaemia
-haemachromotosis

35

What is Sheehan's syndrome?

necrosis of the pituitary gland following hypovolemic shock after childbirth.

36

How is prolactin related to the menstrual cycle?

It inhibits oestrogen production
it acts on the mammary glands for milk production

37

How is prolactin secretion controlled?

Dopamine inhibits.
TRH stimulates.

38

What are the 3 broad categories that hyperprolactinaemia can be a cause of?

physiological- eg sleep, stress, pregnancy

pharmacological- any dopamine antagonists will remove inhibition

pathological- prolactin secreting adenoma of pituitary gland, hypothyroidism

39

How does hypothyroidism cause hyperprolactinaemia?

Low levels of T3/4 lead to reduced negative feedback, so the they hypothalamus releases more TRH. as well as stimulating the release of TSH, it also stimulates the release of prolactin, causing hyperprolactinaemia.

40

Give examples of drugs that inhibits dopamine action.

-opiates
-anaesthesia
-H2 antagonists

41

What are the 3 main things seen in patients with PCOS?

-secondary amenorrhoea
-Physical signs including hirsutism and acne
-enlarged ovaries with many cysts on them.

42

What is the beleived cause of PCOS?

increased frequency of GnRH pulses leading to increased LH pulses and therefore increased androgen secretions. These androgens are commonly converted to testosterone.

43

In PCOS, why doesn't menstruation happen?

follicles get stimulated for development but no dominant follicle is chosen.
They may still secrete inhibin (FSH inhibited)

44

What investigations do you do for PCOS?

-high testosterone levels
-hypersecretion of LH
-polycystic ovaries

45

Why might someone who has PCOS not show high levels of LH when you take a blood sample?

Because of the pulsatile nature.

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