Flashcards in H&N 9.1 Oral cavity and tongue. Deck (44)
What are the boundaries of the oral cavity?
-roof- hard and soft palate
-lateral- cheeks, buccinator muscles within
-floor- tongue and soft tissues
-anterior- oral fissure
What is meant by the oropharyngeal isthmus?
a short space which is the connection between the oropharynx and the nasopharynx.
anteriorly bound by the palatoglossal arch, and posteriorly by the pallatopharyngeal arch.
What is the oral fissure?
the opening to the mouth
What is the oral vestibule?
the space between the teeth and the cheeks/lips.
(you can runs you're tongue in it)
What is the oral cavity proper?
From the teeth to the ring made by the palatopharyngeal arch, uvula, and tip of epiglottis.
(together with the oral vestibule makes up the oral cavity)
What 2 arches are found within the mouth?
-pallatoglossal arch (Anterior)
-pallatopharyngeal arch (posterior)
What makes up the hard pallate within the mouth?
-The same as is found on the floor of the nasal cavity.
-pallatine process of maxilla and the pallatine bones.
What holes are found within the hard pallate?
-greater palatine foramen.
What runs through the incisor foramen?
-nasopalatine nerves (from the maxillary branch of the trigeminal nerve)
What runs through the greater palatine foramina?
descending palatine artery and greater palatine nerve.
What is the soft palate of the oral cavity made from?
-the palatoglossus and the palatopharyngeus muscles (the same muscles that make up the arches)
What is the function of the palatoglossus and palatopharyngeus?
They act to elevate the soft palate during swallowing and yawning.
What is the innervation of the pallatoglossus and pallatopharyngeus muscles?
What would happen to the uvula if the right vagus nerve was damaged?
It would deviate away from the affected side, because the unnaffected side will be unopposed, leading to deviation to the left.
What is the function of the gag reflex?
To prevent choking, acts by involuntarily lifting the soft palate muscles.
What are the limbs of the gag reflex?
Afferent limb- glossopharyngeal nerve (sensory to the back of the tongue, uvula, tonsillar area)
Efferent limb- vagus nerve (motor to the pharyngeal muscles of the soft palate)
Why is the gag reflex not usually formally tested?
What are the order of the teeth found in an adult, from front to back?
3rd molar (wisdom tooth)
What is the sensory supply to the teeth?
-lower jaw via the inferior alveolar nerve (from the mandibular nerve)
-upper jaw via the superior alveolar nerves (from the maxillary nerve)
What might cause loss of sensation to the lower jaw?
A fracture of the mandible, the inferior alveolar nerve runs through the bone of the mandible, so is likely to get damaged.
What are the extrinsic muscles of the tongue?
what is the general function of the extrinsic muscles of the tongue?
to move the position of the tongue.
What are the functions of:
1) to elevate and retract the tongue
2) to depress and retract the tongue
3) to protrude the tongue
What are the intrinsic muscles of the tongue?
What is the general function of the intrinsic muscles of the tongue?
To change the shape of the tongue.
What are the specific actions of the following tongue muscles:
1) superior longitudinal
2) vertical muscle
3) transverse muscle
4) inferior longitudinal
1) to curl the tongue up
2) to make the tongue flatter
3) to make the tongue rounder in shape, drawing in the sides
4) to curl the tongue down.
What nerve supplies the tongue muscles?
What would happen if there was damage to the right hypoglossus nerve?
You'd get deviation towards the affected side, so youd get deviation to the right.
What nerve supplies sensory innervation to the tongue?
-General sensory via the lingual nerve, a branch of V3.
Special sensory- anterior 2/3 via the chorda tympani, posterior 1/3 via the glossopharyngeal nerve.