HaDSoc 5.2 health promotion Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in HaDSoc 5.2 health promotion Deck (40):

What is meant by 'determinants of health'?

A range of factors which can cumulatively affect the health of populations, communities and individuals.

-physical environment
-social and economical environment
-individual genetics behaviours and characteristics


Define health promotion.

The process of enabling an individual to increase control over and improve their health.


Who is reponsible for health promotion?

Not just the health sector, since things such as environment, housing, social factors etc all play a part in determining health.


What are the principles of health promotion.



What is meant by a multi-strategy approach to health promotion?

Simple the multiple approaches will be adopted to promote health, including policy devlopment, organisation change, community development.


What is meant by an intersectoral approach to health promotion?

That sectors other than the health sector will be involved


What is meant by substainable approach to health promotion?

It needs to be something which is going to be maintained over time, even when it is no longer being funded.


What is meant by empowering, which regards to health promotion?

Giving people more power of the determinants of their health.


What is meant by equitable with regards to health promotion?

Equity and social justice are taken into account throughout.


What is meant by a holistic approach with regards to health promotion?

Spiritual, mental, social and physical health will ALL be taken into account.


What is meant by participatory, with regards to health promotion?

everyone who the promotion involves, will be involved and remain involved throughout the process.


What is the difference between public health and health promotion?

Public health focuss' more on the ends of health and the outcomes.

Health promotion puts more emphasis on the means of getting to those ends.


What are the main categories of critiques of health promotion?

-structural critiques

-surveillance critiques

-consumption critiques


What are structural critiques of health promotion?

That there is too much blame put on individuals, victim blaming.

Also, the materal conditions, so each persons circumstance, are marginalised and not taken into account.


What are surveillance critiques of health promotion?

To what extent can the government monitor and regulate the population and it's actions.


What are consumption critiques of health promotion?

lifestyle choices are not just health risks, but part of building an identity for people.


What are the 5 approaches to health promotion, in action?

-social change


What is meant by primary medical approaches to health promotion?

Preventing the onset of disease, so encouraging people to not start smoking/quit, or to be immunised.


What are the 4 main approaches to primary interventions in health promotion?

-prevention of contact with contagious people
-prevention of cantact with enviromental risk factors, eg asbestos, radon
-preventing risk factors of health related behaviour (eg giving up smoking)


What is meant by secondary medical interventions, with regards to health promotion?

Early detection and treatment of a disease, to prevent future damage/complications.


Give some examples of secondary interventions (Health promotion).

-screening for breast cancer/breast changes
-monitoring and treating blood pressure


What is meant by tertiary medical interventions with regards to health promotion?

-to limit the extend of damage/disability cuased by an established disease which is not curable.


Give examples of tertiary medical interventions. (Health promotion)

-renal transplants
-steroid treatment for asthma


Give an example of social change, with regards to health promotion?

The smoking in public ban, issued in 2007.
Aimed to deter people from smoking by making it more of an inconvenience.


What are some of the dilemmas associated with health promotion?

-reinforcement of negative sterotypes
-victim blaming
-unequal distribution of responsibility
-false empowerment
-prevention paradox


Describe the reinforcement of negative stereotypes caused by health promotion.

by trying to get a population to avoid a certain condition/outcome, it can lead to negative views of the outcome and reinforce stereotypes associated with people who already have it.

Eg Drug users and HIV, people will think they only have themselves to blame


Describe the false empowerment caused by health promotion.

Giving people information doesnt necessarily give them the means to change a situation, they may be limited by funds, or social standings etc.


Describe victim blaming caused by health promotion.

By only focussing on what that person can do/not do to change their behaviours ignores the wider aspects which also affect behaviour, such as environment and finance.


Describe unequal responsibility with regards to health promotion.

It is often down to the mother to be responsible for things like making sure the family eat healthilty, or do enough exercise, and the father is rarely mentioned.


Describe the prevention paradox.

Just becuase an intervention makes a difference at the population level, doesnt mean it will make a difference at the individual level.

People may not see themselves as candiates for a disease so may not participate

This can lead to things such as poor adherance, or people putting things down to fate/coming up with excuses


With regards to health promotion, what is meant by evaluation?

The systemic collection of date to assess the effectiveness of an intervention at acheiving predetermined objectives.


What are the reasons for needing to evaluate health promotion interventions?

-to justify resources spent on it
-to ensure no harm is coming of it
-to ensure there is evidence behind the study
-to be able to improve the program in the future


What are the types of health promotion evaluation?



Which type of evaluation of health promotion is most commonly used?

impact evaluation.

It is the easiest to conduct


What is a process evaluation, in health promotion?

It looks as how the intervention was conducted, and put into place.
Often done by qualitative methods


What is an impact evaluation, in health promotion?

-looks at the immediate effects of an intervention.


What is an outcome evaluation in health promotion?

Looks at long term outcomes of the program.

Sensitive to the timing of the evaluation, as decay and delay can affect the results.


What is meant by decay, in health promotion?

Immediately, there is a positive impact, but it is not maintained and quickly dies down.

No long term impact


What is meant by delay, in health promotion?

It takes a while before any effects are seen as a result of an intervention.


What are some difficulties in evaluating health promotion interventions?

-some outcomes are difficult to measure/the design of the intervention is difficult to evaluate
-confounding factors may be in play, so you don't know if it was specifically the intervention which has had the effect
-may be a lag time effect

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