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Flashcards in Immunizations Deck (76)
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1

What is a vaccine?

any suspension containing antigenic molecules such as preparation of a weakened or killed pathogen derived from a microorganism, given to stimulate an immune response to an infectious disease

2

What is an immunization?
REMEMBER: includes passive and active immunity

-stimulates the immune system
-process by which an individuals immune system becomes fortified against an agent

3

What is prophylaxis?

measure taken to maintain health and prevent the spread of disease, such as use of antibiotics to prevent infections

4

What is a titer? What is an example of a titer?

--measure of amount or concentration of a substance in a solute
-examples are: medicine or antibodies found in patients blood

5

What is an antibody titer? What are examples of antibody titers that might be checked?

-lab test that measures presence and amount of antibodies in blood
-antibody level in the blood is a refection of past exposures to antigen
-ex: MMR, varicella

6

If you give someone a tetanus shot after stepping on a nail, what kind of measure are you taking to prevent the patient from getting tetanus?

Prophylactic

7

What is herd immunity?
What kinds of people is it protecting?

a form of immunity that occurs when the vaccination of a significant portion of a population provides a measure of protection for individuals who have not developed immunity
protecting: people who cannot get vaccine, immunocompromised, babies

8

What is herd immunity threshold?
What threshold do most vaccines need to reduce spread?

% of population vaccinated at which herd immunity is induced
need: 85-95%

9

What do vaccines induce in the immune system? How do they work?

--induce B cell proliferation (MEMORY)
--Ab production and response
--T-cell sensitization
Similar to natural infection WITHOUT risk of disease

10

What is an active immunization? What kind of immunity does it provide? How long until reach meaningful immunity?

Active = antigen administration (live, killed, or derivative protein or polysaccharide) or toxin (toxin derivative)
Provides = LONG term immunity
Meaningful = 2-4 WEEKS after vaccination

11

What is passive immunization? What kind of immunity does it provide? How long until protected?

Passive: administration of pre-formed ANTIBODY
Provides: SHORT term immunity lasting 3-6 MONTHS
Protected: immediately

12

What are examples of immunoglobulins therapy (passive immunity)?

Rabies exposure
Mom w/ HBsAg+ and give Hep B immune globulin within 12 hours of birth
Palivizumab (synagis) for RSV

13

What are populations that should not receive live vaccinations?

-preggos
-cancer pts
-HIV
Transplant
-SCID
-Chemotherapy and other immunosuppressive drugs (chronic steroids)

14

What are the viral attenuated vaccines?

MMR
varicella/zoster
rotavirus
intranasal influenza
oral polio
yellow fever

15

What are the attenuated bacterial vaccines?

BCG (TB)
Typhoid

16

What do the fractional inactivated vaccines consist of

Protein based: toxoid, subunit
Polysaccharide: cell wall from bacteria, conjugate (polysaccharide is chemically linked to protein)

17

What are the characteristics of inactivated vaccines?

-cannot replicate
-not as effective as live
-generally require 3-5 does
-immune response is MOSTLY HUMORAL
-ab titer may diminish with time
-require boosters

18

What are the whole inactivated viral vaccines?

polio
hepatitis
rabies
influenza(not available in the US)

19

What are the inactivated bacterial whole-cell vaccines?
**None of these are available in the united states

pertussis
typhoid
cholera
plague

20

What are the inactivated fractional subunit vaccines?

Hep B
influenza
acellular pertussis (not whole form so know pts won't get full side affect)HPV
anthrax

21

What are the inactivated fractional toxoid vaccines?

diphtheria
tetanus

22

What are the local side effects to vaccines?

pain, swelling, redness at injection site

23

Systemic side effects of vaccines?

fever, malaise, headache
allergic rxn
nonspecific
may be unrelated to vaccine

24

What is a contraindication?

condition in a recipient that greatly increases the chance of a serious adverse reaction

25

What is a precaution?

condition in a recipient that might increase the chance of a serious adverse reaction or compromise the ability of the vaccine to produce immunity

26

What are some invalid CI to vaccines?

--mild illnes
--abx therapy
--preggo or immunosuppressed person in house
--breastfeeding
--preterm birth
--allergy to products not present in vaccine or allergy that is not anaphylactic
--family hx of adverse effects
--tuberculin skin testing
--multiple vaccines
--gastric discomfort after eating eggs

27

What vaccines should household members of immunosuppressed persons get?

MMR
varicella
annual influenza

28

What is the providers role in vaccinations?

management of side effects
reporting side effects
benefit and risk communication
storage and administration
timing and space of vaccine doses
observation of CI and precautions

29

If you had previous anaphylactic rx to specific vaccine what should you do? can you give others?

avoid revaccination with specific vaccines and means you can still give all other vaccines

30

What vaccine do you not want to give if pt has hx of anaphylaxis to eggs or egg protein?

Avoid: MMR, influenza, yellow fever
CAN GIVE TETANUS, and all others