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Flashcards in Lab stuff Deck (34)
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1

CH50 and AH50

CH50 = classical
AH50 = alternative

2

Why measure complement in a patient? What can you diagnose this way?
(another reason for immune depression)

-Recurrent infection w/normal WBCs
-diagnose auto-ab-mediated immune syndromes
-diagnose lupus, sjogrens syndrom, glomerulonephritis

3

What will complement levels be if patient has a issue? High or low?

Low = consumptive process

4

When do eosinophils increase?

allergy and parasitic infections

5

When do basophils increase

(mast cells)
allergic reactions

6

When do lymphocytes increase?

viral infections

7

What is the cell that is the body's primary defense against bacterial infection and physiologic stress?

neutrophils

8

When do you see a left shift with neutrophils?

increase need for them indicating an infection in process such as app or cholecystitis

9

When receiving a corticosteroid what leukocyte will be decreased?

eosinophils and sometimes basophils

10

Alteration in bone marrow function such as leukemia or Hodgkins disease may cause increase in what leukocyte?

basophils

11

In adults, what is the most abundant wbc after neutrophils?

lymphocytes

12

In children, what is the second most abundant wbc are neutrophils. What is the first?

lymphocytes

13

What class of drugs causes lymphopenia?

corticosteriods

14

What two cell types are the first line of defense agains bacteria and viruses?

neutrophils and macrophages

15

What cell increases with bacterial infections, some diseases and meds like steroids?

neutrophils

16

What cell increases in pt w/ parasites and with allergies?

Eosinophils

17

What cell is also involved allergic reactions?

basophils

18

What cells are most reactive to viral infections and malignancy?

lymphocytes

19

What is the normal percentage of neutrophils, lymphocytes in the blood?
What is the normal WBC count total?

Neutrophils = 45-75% (70%normal)
Lymphocytes = 20-45% )30%normal)
WBC = 4500-11,000cells/cm(squared)

20

What would you consider in an absolute neutrophil count of less than 1500? (diagnosis and name for low neutrophils?)

Neutropenia
Dx: overwhelming infection, drugs and chemicals, ionizing radiation, hematopoietic disorder, hypersplenism

21

What would you find, as far as WBCs, with diseases such as AIDS, Malignancy, TB, increase loss via GI tract, increase destruction and an ALC of less than 1500?

Lymphocytopenia
Use ALC to determine the lymphocyte subpopulations (CD4 &CD8) by staining

22

What immunoglobulin is found in the largest concentration in the plasma, provides long term immunity, activates complement, and crosses the placenta?

IgG

23

What immunoglobulin is found in small amounts, first to appear in response to antigen, and is a very good complement activator?

IgM

24

What immunoglobulin provides the first line of defense on mucosal surfaces, is found in secretions, and protects against infections in the GU, GI and respiratory tracts?

IgA

25

What immunoglobulin mediates allergic and hypersensitivity reactions?

IgE

26

Serodiagnostic testing.
Direct means patient provides the ------ and the lab provides the -------.
Indirect means patient provides the ------- and the lab provides the -------.

Direct = antigen, antibody
Indirect = antibody, antigen

27

What does anergy mean in allergy testing?

lack of skin reactivity
means decreased CMI

28

What causes lymphocytosis?

-unique T cell populations are produced in reaction to viruses = lymphocytosis
-also increases with lymphoproliferative disorders

29

What are some examples of direct immunoassays in serodiagnostic testing? What does it detect?

Examples: H. influenza, hemolytic strep, s. pneumonia, N. meningitides (can test from tissue swab, blood, CSF)
Detects: presence of antigens

30

What immunoglobulin is NOT useful for the diagnosis of immune deficiency when measured in the serum?

IgD