Flashcards in Lab stuff Deck (34)
CH50 and AH50
CH50 = classical
AH50 = alternative
Why measure complement in a patient? What can you diagnose this way?
(another reason for immune depression)
-Recurrent infection w/normal WBCs
-diagnose auto-ab-mediated immune syndromes
-diagnose lupus, sjogrens syndrom, glomerulonephritis
What will complement levels be if patient has a issue? High or low?
Low = consumptive process
When do eosinophils increase?
allergy and parasitic infections
When do basophils increase
When do lymphocytes increase?
What is the cell that is the body's primary defense against bacterial infection and physiologic stress?
When do you see a left shift with neutrophils?
increase need for them indicating an infection in process such as app or cholecystitis
When receiving a corticosteroid what leukocyte will be decreased?
eosinophils and sometimes basophils
Alteration in bone marrow function such as leukemia or Hodgkins disease may cause increase in what leukocyte?
In adults, what is the most abundant wbc after neutrophils?
In children, what is the second most abundant wbc are neutrophils. What is the first?
What class of drugs causes lymphopenia?
What two cell types are the first line of defense agains bacteria and viruses?
neutrophils and macrophages
What cell increases with bacterial infections, some diseases and meds like steroids?
What cell increases in pt w/ parasites and with allergies?
What cell is also involved allergic reactions?
What cells are most reactive to viral infections and malignancy?
What is the normal percentage of neutrophils, lymphocytes in the blood?
What is the normal WBC count total?
Neutrophils = 45-75% (70%normal)
Lymphocytes = 20-45% )30%normal)
WBC = 4500-11,000cells/cm(squared)
What would you consider in an absolute neutrophil count of less than 1500? (diagnosis and name for low neutrophils?)
Dx: overwhelming infection, drugs and chemicals, ionizing radiation, hematopoietic disorder, hypersplenism
What would you find, as far as WBCs, with diseases such as AIDS, Malignancy, TB, increase loss via GI tract, increase destruction and an ALC of less than 1500?
Use ALC to determine the lymphocyte subpopulations (CD4 &CD8) by staining
What immunoglobulin is found in the largest concentration in the plasma, provides long term immunity, activates complement, and crosses the placenta?
What immunoglobulin is found in small amounts, first to appear in response to antigen, and is a very good complement activator?
What immunoglobulin provides the first line of defense on mucosal surfaces, is found in secretions, and protects against infections in the GU, GI and respiratory tracts?
What immunoglobulin mediates allergic and hypersensitivity reactions?
Direct means patient provides the ------ and the lab provides the -------.
Indirect means patient provides the ------- and the lab provides the -------.
Direct = antigen, antibody
Indirect = antibody, antigen
What does anergy mean in allergy testing?
lack of skin reactivity
means decreased CMI
What causes lymphocytosis?
-unique T cell populations are produced in reaction to viruses = lymphocytosis
-also increases with lymphoproliferative disorders
What are some examples of direct immunoassays in serodiagnostic testing? What does it detect?
Examples: H. influenza, hemolytic strep, s. pneumonia, N. meningitides (can test from tissue swab, blood, CSF)
Detects: presence of antigens