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Flashcards in Intro to epidemiology Deck (9)
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what is epidemiology

study of distribution and determinants of health events an health related factors in specified populations and the application of this knowledge to plan and evaluate strategies to prevent or manage disease in population


what are the objectives of epidemiology

history of disease
community diagnossis
measure risk
assessment, evaluation, research
complete clinical picture
identification of syndromes
determine the cause of disease


Give examples of epidemiological measuresd

measure of frequency (prevalence, incidence)-->measures of association (odds ratio)->measures of impact (attributable risk)


How to calculate measures of frequency (incidence rate and prevalence date

Incidence rate=(total no. new cases during given time period/total population at risk during same time period)*100^n
Prevalence rate=(all new and pre-existing cases of a specific disease during given time period/total population during the same period)*10^n


How to calculate risk ratio (cumulative incidence ratio) in measures of association

Cumulative incidence in case/cumulative incidence in control


What is used to measure potential impact and what calculation is used

attributable risk=((incidence exposed-incidence unexposed)/incidence exposed)*100
obtained is the % of occasions when outcome is attributed to exposure


Types of epidemiological investigations and its applications

descriptive: patterns of disease occurence, by person, time and place, easily accessible data
Application-vital stats, periodic surveys, comparisons, program planing, hypotheses generating, future research
Analytiical: disease etiology, resource intensive, comparison groups
Application-determinants of disease, hypotheses testing, modes of transmission


Epidemiological study designs and its concerns

Experimental: RCT (manipulation, control, randomisation, blinding) Concerns=unethical
Observational: cohort study, case control study, crosss sectional study (non experimental, non controlled, natural grouping, time, doesn't interfere/manipulate) Concerns=confounding, selection bias, measurement errorrs


What kind of epidemiological study errors can you get

Selection bias (self selection=volunteers tend to be different, non response=some participants might refuse to answer, attrition=unequal loss of participants, selective survival)
Information bias (reporting bias, flase positives/negatives, errors and omissions in medical records)
Confounding (differences in age, gender health status)